Abnormal Psychology: Classification & Disorders A P P S Y C H O L O G Y: U N I T X I Designated Unit: Unit IV States of Consciousness Introduction: Fact or Falsehood? Research suggests that the stigma & stress associated with being homosexual increase the risk of mental health problems
True In America, research indicates that there are more prison inmates with severe mental disorders than there are psychiatric inpatients in all of the countrys hospitals True Introduction: Fact or Falsehood? About 30% of psychologically disordered people are dangerous; that is, they are more likely than other people to commit
a crime False Identical twins who have been raised separately may develop the same phobias True Dissociative identity disorder is a type of schizophrenia
False Introduction: Fact or Falsehood? In North America, todays young adults are three times as likely as their grandparents to report having experienced depression True White Americans commit suicide nearly twice as often as black Americans do
True There is strong evidence for a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia True Introduction: Fact or Falsehood? An estimated one in seven Americans suffers from a clinically significant mental disorder
True Abnormal Psychology: The Basics PA R T O N E Walk Around the Block Activity This activity requires 5 student volunteers who are comfortable with acting in front of the class You will need to imagine that our classroom is a busy city block As the volunteers are acting out their roles, you should attempt to figure out what they are doing & why they are acting the way they are. Character
1 2 3 4 5 Just robbed a bank Is getting married this evening His or her
spouse just left him/her Just escaped from a mental hospital Has a job interview in 30 minutes Abnormal: The Basics Stereotypes & Stigmas
Psychological disorders are incurable Those with psychological disorders are violent People with psychological disorders behave in a bizarre manner; are considerably different from normal people Impact of these labels and/or stereotypes? Abnormal: The Basics Is it really possible to categorize human beings into neat & tidy boxes?
Normal or abnormal? Mentally healthy or mentally ill? Does abnormal behavior necessarily mean illness? Abnormal: The Basics The Medical Model (18th & 19th centuries) Proposed that it is most useful to think of abnormal behavior as any other medical disease
Provided us with many terms: Mental illness, psychological disorder, psychopathology, etc. Its influence remains strong today What was the focus prior to this? Has the medical model outgrown its usefulness? Abnormal: The Basics Terminology
Diagnosis Etiology Involves distinguishing one illness from another The apparent causation & developmental history of an illness Prognosis
Forecast about that probable course of an illness Abnormal Psychology: The Criteria PA R T T W O Abnormal: The Criteria Deviance Behavior that deviates from what society considers acceptable/normal
Varies considerably from one culture to the next Examples Transvestic fetishism Hoarding Abnormal: The Criteria Maladaptive Behavior A situation in which day-to-day functioning is impaired/negatively impacted Example
Substance abuse Abnormal: The Criteria Personal Distress An individuals self-report of personal distress Examples Depression Anxiety disorders Note: In order to diagnose a psychological disorder, only one of the three major criteria needs to be present
Abnormal Psychology: The Perspectives PA R T T H R E E Perspective Explanation of Behavior Implications Psychoanalyt ic Disorders/abnormal behaviors stem from unresolved childhood
conflicts Must examine ones early life, including ones earliest memories Disorders/abnormal behaviors are learned responses (i.e. reinforcement) Must analyze how behavior has been learned, as well as what reinforces its continuation Disorders/abnormal
behaviors are caused by cognitive processes (thoughts & beliefs) Must examine ones thoughts & beliefs; change is the key to fixing maladaptive behavior Individuals are responsible for their own behavior, even disordered/abnormal behavior Must examine self-concept; disordered individuals do
not have self-worth Disorders/abnormal behavior is shaped by family, society & culture Believe that ones relationship with others can support & even cause abnormal behavior Behavioral Cognitive Humanistic
Sociocultural Abnormal Behavior: Classifications PA R T F O U R Abnormal: Case Study Anne is a sixteen-year-old girl living in a medium-sized city in the Midwest. Her family includes a mother, father, fourteen-year-old brother and a great aunt, who has living with the family since Anne was four. Anne is a junior at City High School and is taking a college-preparatory program. Her appearance is strikingly different from the other girls in her class. She wears blouses which she has made out of various scraps of material. The blouses are accompanied by the same pair of overalls everyday, two mismatched shoes and a hat with a blue feather. She is a talented artist, producing sketches of her fellow classmates that
are remarkably accurate. She draws constantly, even when told that to do so will lower her in grade in classes where she is expected to take lecture notes. She has no friends at school, but seems undisturbed by the fact that she eats lunch by herself and walks around campus alone. Abnormal: Case Study Her grades are erratic; if she likes a class she often receives an A or B, but will do no work at all in those she dislikes. Anne can occasionally be heard talking to herself; she is interested in poetry and says she is composing if asked about her poetry. She refuses to watch television, calling it a wasteland. This belief is carried into the classroom, where she refuses to watch videotapes, saying they are poor excuses for teaching. Her parents say they dont understand her; she isnt like anyone in their family. She and her brother have very little in common. He is embarrassed by Annes behavior and doesnt understand her
either. Anne seems blithely unaware of her apparent isolation, except for occasional outbursts about the meaninglessness of most peoples activity. Abnormal: Classifications The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) Published by the APA Fifth edition released in 2013
Describes 400 psychological disorders, as opposed to 60 in the 1950s Abnormal: Classifications The DSM-V takes a multi-axial approach Axis I: Major Clinical Syndromes Axis II: Personality Disorders Axis III: General Medical Axis IV: Social/Environmental Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning Purpose of the DSM-V? To classify disorders
To describe symptoms DOES NOT discuss causes or potential cures Abnormal: Classifications Example of a DSM-V multi-axial evaluation 49 year-old male
Axis I: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD); substance (cocaine) abuser Axis II: Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) Axis III: Hypertension Axis IV: Psychosocial stressors (recent divorce, permitted to see children only infrequently, job is in jeopardy) Axis V: Current GAF (46) Abnormal: Classifications Issues with the DSM-V? Critics of the DSM-V argue that labels may stigmatize individuals
On the other hand, labels may be helpful for healthcare professionals when communicating with one another & establishing therapeutic processes Insanity labels raise ethical questions regarding how society should treat people who have disorders and have committed crimes Abnormal Behavior: Specific Disorders DSM-V Axis I Disorders Anxiety Disorders Mood Disorders
Schizophrenic Disorders Dissociative Disorders DSM-V Axis II Disorders Personality Disorders ***For more information, please see the chart that was completed in class PA R T F I V E Objective 3/13/17 P R O V I D E D N O T E S, S W B AT E X P L A I N T H E SYMPTOMS OF GENERALIZED ANXIETY D I S O R D E R , P H O B I A S , O C B , VA R I O U S F O R M S OF SCHIZOPHRENIA, & OTHER PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS. AGENDA:
-DO NOW -DISORDERS CHART -ACTIVITY/VIDEOS Disorders Chart USING YOUR TEXTBOOK, COMPLETE THE PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS CHART UNIT 12 MOTHER WITH DID CAMERON WEST DID CHILD WITH SCHIZOPHRENIA HOWIE MANDEL OCD S C H I Z O P H R E N I A S I M U L AT O R
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