الشريحة 1 - Al-Mustansiriya University

الشريحة 1 - Al-Mustansiriya University

Presented by : ALI Jabber KARAM Contents Definitions of Syntagmatic relations Normal and abnormal co-occurrence Types of abnormality Syntagmatic sence relations The directionality of Syntagmatic constraints Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations Some puzzles & specifying co-occurrence restrictions

Co-occurrence patterns between words Definitions of A syntagmatic relations According to John Lyons (1968) A syntagmatic relation is a relation between expressions that occur next to one another. Syntagmatic relations contrast with paradigmatic relations .

syntagmatic relation is denoting the relationship between two or more linguistic units used sequentially to make well-formed structures. Definitions of A syntagmatic relations syntagmatic relation is the mutual association of two or more words in sequence . For

instance blond and hair, kick and foot Normal and abnormal cooccurrence the semantic relations between lexical units in the same discourse, string, sentence, or other syntactic structure, which govern their well-formedness. (There are, of course, important relations between larger discourse

elements such as clauses, sentences, an larger units which are important for discourse cohesion and coherence. Normal and abnormal cooccurrence it is necessary to make a distinction between two types of interaction between meaningful elements in a discourse. there are two types by the terms discourse interaction and syntagmatic interaction. For instance John and Mary will be joined in holy matrimony

next week: who's going to get the spuds? There are two sorts of oddness here. The first is the register clash between holy matrimony and spuds. This can easily be cured: Normal and abnormal cooccurrence There are two potential focuses of interest in studying syntagmatic semantic relations: one is whether, or to what extent, a particular combination makes

sense, the other is whether, or to what extent, a combination is normal or abnormal. Normal and abnormal cooccurrence Chomsky's colourless green ideas might not be so anomalous if used to describe a boring lecture on environmental issues. The moral of this is that we are not concerned with strings of words, but with strings of readings. Very often, a potential anomaly is a clue to the fact that either a different reading of some item in the string must be selected, or a new reading

must be created. Types of abnormality 1. semantic clash The sorts of clash we are interested in here are

those which resist contextual manipulation and can reasonably be considered to be lexical in nature. Clashes come in varying degrees of severity. Presumably this property varies continuously, but as a first approximation, some distinctions can be made. The first distinction is between clashes which result from the non-satisfaction of collocational preferences, and those which result from the non-satisfaction of selectional preferences. Types of abnormality According Cruse (1986 )

Paradox is also involved when the 'wrong' value on a dimension is indicated: It's too small to fit into this box, Rain falls upwards, usually, If you walk any faster, you'll be standing still. Paradoxes are typically 'correctable'. The most serious degree of clash is incongruity. This is when the ontological discrepancy is so large that no sense can be extracted at all, without radical reinterpretation. Types of abnormality 2. Pleonasm

A pleonastic relation between two elements occurs when one of them seems redundant, and appears not to add any semantic information not already given by the other element. for instance: John kicked the ball with his foot. Here with his foot adds nothing, since we know from kick what the instrument of striking was. Pleonasm can be avoided either by omitting with his foot: Syntagmatic sence relations syntagmatic sense relations on the pattern of

paradigmatic relations we find right at the outset that there are certain differences. The main one is that there are no relations of a syntagmatic nature that have the generality and context independence of paradigmatic relations such as hyponymy and meronymy. All relations are tied to particular grammatical constructions, or at least to families of constructions. For instance The chair saw John. But these two words do not necessarily clash: The directionality of Syntagmatic

constraints Constraints on co-occurrence between lexical items usually have directional properties. Two aspects of this are of particular interest. The first concerns which item does the selecting (the selector), and which gets selected (the selectee). It is necessary to separate two notions of selection here. If we are thinking of the selection from a set of polysemous or homonymous readings, then in a sense the process is obviously at least potentially bidirectional and there is

The directionality of Syntagmatic constraints The direction in which selection operates, is correlated with grammar. The relevant generalization is that adjectives select their head nouns and verbs select their complements; nouns, in general, are always selectees. This can be made into a more satisfying generalization in logical terms: predicates select, and arguments are selected.

Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations 1- Pleonasm In cases of pleonasm, the oddness can in general be 'cured' by substituting one of the tautonyms by a hyponym or hyponymous expression, or the other by a superordinate. For instance He kicked it with his foot. (pleonastic) He kicked it with his left foot. (normal: left foot is hyponymous to foot ) He struck it with his foot. (normal: struck is superordinate to kick)

Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations 2- clash There three kinds of clash are inappropriateness, paradox, and incongruity 1- inappropriateness is a type of clash which can be cured by substitution of one of the xenonyms by a propositional synonym. For instance The geranium passed away. (inappropriateness)

Syntagmatic and paradigmatic relations Paradox is a more serious type of clash which can be cured by substituting one of the xenonyms by an incompatible or immediate superordinate:. for instance The cat barked. (paradox) Incongruity is an incurable clash. Some puzzles & specifying cooccurrence restrictions Some puzzles The effect of putting words together is not always what might be predicted on general

grounds. A particular example of this is the failure of pleonasm to appear in certain circumstances. for instance Mary rushed quickly to the door. Certainly , quickness is of the essence of rushing specifying co-occurrence restrictions the co-occurrence regularities of words will be discussed, without, perhaps, all of them being resolved. Classically, selectional

restrictions were stated in the form of semantic categories to which lexical partners had to belong (recall that most selectees are nouns). For instance John drank the milk. John poured the milk into the cup. Co-occurrence patterns between words 1- Extralinguistic factors Some of the possible reasons for the greater affinity of A for X rather than Y

are not located in the language at all, but in the extralinguistic world. For instance, one reason why Jane fried the egg is more frequent than Jane fried the lettuce is simply that people in the world are more likely to fry eggs than lettuce. Co-occurrence patterns between words 2- Stereotypic combinations A factor leading to collocational affinity which lies on the border between the linguistic and the nonlinguistic is the existence of stereotypic combinations, such as the co-occurrence of

beautiful with flower(s), or dear with friend. 3- Arbitrary' collocational restrictions It is obvious enough that the meanings of words have an effect on their collocational affinity. A foreigner who knew the meanings of the words would not need to be told that The farmer killed the rabbit is more likely to occur in English than The farmer killed the gate. Co-occurrence patterns between words It is not that occasions of gate killing are rare in English-speaking countries (but a national pastime elsewhere); it is rather

that they are inconceivable any where. This is because things have to be alive before they can be killed, and gates are just not living things. 4- Non-compositional affinities A special type of affinity holds between lexical items which occur in a noncompositional (e.g. idiomatic) combination such as pull someone's leg. References https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/ syntagmatic

John. 1968. Introduction to Theoretical Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. D. Alan Cruse , Meaning in Language: An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics Lyons,

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