Biodegradation of poly(ε-caprolactone)/poly(lactic acid ...

Biodegradation of poly(ε-caprolactone)/poly(lactic acid ...

About OMICS Group OMICS Group International is an amalgamation of Open Access publications and worldwide international science conferences and events. Established in the year 2007 with the sole aim of making the information on Sciences and technology Open Access, OMICS Group publishes 400 online open access scholarly journals in all aspects of Science, Engineering, Management and Technology journals. OMICS Group has been instrumental in taking the knowledge on Science & technology to the doorsteps of ordinary men and women. Research Scholars, Students, Libraries, Educational Institutions, Research centers and the industry are main stakeholders that benefitted greatly from this knowledge dissemination. OMICS Group also organizes 300 International conferences annually across the globe, where knowledge transfer takes place through debates, round table discussions, poster presentations, workshops, symposia and exhibitions. About OMICS Group Conferences

OMICS Group International is a pioneer and leading science event organizer, which publishes around 400 open access journals and conducts over 300 Medical, Clinical, Engineering, Life Sciences, Phrama scientific conferences all over the globe annually with the support of more than 1000 scientific associations and 30,000 editorial board members and 3.5 million followers to its credit. OMICS Group has organized 500 conferences, workshops and national symposiums across the major cities including San Francisco, Las Vegas, San Antonio, Omaha, Orlando, Raleigh, Santa Clara, Chicago, Philadelphia, Baltimore, United Kingdom, Valencia, Dubai, Beijing, Hyderabad, Bengaluru and Mumbai. Biodegradation of poly(-caprolactone)/poly(-lactic acid) composites: The effect of fiber load and compatibilization Presented By

Akos Noel Ibrahim (PhD) At Material Science and Engineering Conference San Antonio, USA October 06-08, 2014 Introduction The development of green composite materials has become necessary due to environmental concern over utilization and exploitation of resources that cannot be replaced or reintroduced into the environment. This has prompted research interest in industries and the academic community. Introduction contd.

To solve the above mentioned problems materials scientist and engineers adopts the following. Developing biodegradable materials with properties that can be manipulated. Preparing polymeric materials without using toxic or noxious components Developing materials that can naturally be broken down by the environment. Introduction contd. To obtain eco-friendly composites, the following materials were used. Natural fibers as reinforcement in composites production. Biodegradable polymers (PCL and PLA)

were used as matrix. This in addition to environmental protection is to reduce cost and also create a new class of composite materials. Figure1. Classification of Reinforcing Natural/Biofibers Reinforcing natural/Biofibers Non-wood natural/biofibers Straw fibers Bast E.g. kenaf, flax, jute,

hemp E.g. rice/wheat /corn straws Leaf E.g. henequen, sisal, pineapple leaf fiber Wood fibers

Grass fibers Seed/Fruit E.g. soft and hard woods Bamboo fiber, switch grass Recycled wood fibers E.g. Newspaper/

magazines fibers Composition of natural fibers All natural fibers whether wood or non wood are Cellulosic in nature. Cellulose and lignin are the major components found in natural biofibers. Lignin is the material that gives support to the structure of plants. Table1. Chemical composition of some natural fibers Fiber

Cellulose Lignin Hemicellu Pectin Ash (%) (%) lose

(%) (%) (or pentosan) (%) Abaca 56-63 7-9 15-17

- 3 Kenaf 31-57 15-19 21.5-23 - 2-5

Hemp 57-77 3.7-13 14-22.4 0.9 0.8 Ramie 68.6-91

0.6-0.7 5-16.7 1.9 - Jute (bast) 45-71.5 12-26 13.6-21

0.2 0.5-2 Henequen 77.6 13.1 4-8 - -

Flax fiber 71 22 18.6-20.6 2.3 - (bast) Poly (lactic acid), PLA

PLA is a biodegradable thermoplastic that can be produced from sources that are considered renewable such as tapioca products, corn starch, and sugarcane. PLA can be synthesized through condensation polymerization of lactic acid and ring opening polymerization of lactide to produce polylactide. Properties It is highly crystalline Has Melting point of 150oC Glass transition temperature between 60-65oC Figure 3: Synthesis of PLA OH Condensation -H2O

HO O Lactic acid O O m PLA Condensation

-H2O O Depolymerization O O O O n Lactide oligomers O

Lactide Advantages of PLA It is eco-friendly Has good biocompatibility especially in biomedical applications Has better thermal processibility than most biopolymers Its production saves energy as such reduces cost Limitations of PLA Its toughness is poor It is hydrophobic It is chemically inactive as such difficult to modify Poly (-caprolactone), PCL PCL is petroleum derived synthetic biodegradable polymer. It is tough at ambient temperature and fairly rigid with an

average modulus like that of polyethylene. PCL mixes a lot with other polymers and has some good mechanical properties. Properties It exhibits good solvent, oil, water, and chlorine resistance. Has low melting point (Mpt) between 58-62 oC. Low glass transition temperature, Tg; -60oC. PCL is a highly degradable polymer and semi crystalline. Figure 4: Preparation of Poly (caprolactone) O Catalyst + heat O

O O CH2 5 C * n Caprolactone Polycaprolactone

Advantages of PCL It can be processed easily due to its low melting point PCL is highly degradable and also eco-friendly Has good biocompatibility especially in medical applications Limitations of PCL Its low Tg (-60C) and melting point (58-62C) reduces its chances of being used in some applications e. g. outdoor applications Research interest In view of the above limitations, PCL and PLA were blended and reinforced with treated palm press fibers to achieve enhancement of the blends

mechanical properties. This is to expand the composites outdoor application areas. To achieve the properties enhancement the following was employed to prepare the blends and composites. Methodology The palm fibers were washed and treated with sodium hydroxide after which they were dried, pulverized and a maximum of 400m m particle size used as reinforcement. The blends and composite specimens used for determinations were prepared using twin screw extruder and injection molding machine.

Characterization The Morphology and biodegradation of the fibers, blends and composites was studied using: Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) Results And Discussion Fig. 1 FESEM micrographs of (a) untreated and (b) treated fibers Fig. 2 FTIR of treated, untreated fibers, uncompatibilized and compatibilized blend

Fig. 3 FESEM micrographs of (a) PCL/PLA (90/10), (b) PCL/PLA/DCP (90/10/0.01phr) (c) PCL/PLA/TF (90/10/25), (d) PCL/PLA/TF/DCP (90/10/10/0.01phr) Biodegradation Fig. 4 Residual weights of neat polymers, compatibilized blend and composites Fig. 5 FESEM micrographs after 90 days soil burial (a90) PCL (b90) PLA (c90) PCL/PLA/DCP (d90) PCL/PLA Mag. x500 Fig. 6 FESEM micrographs after 90 days soil burial (e90) PCL/PLA/DCP/10 (f90) PCL/PLA/DCP/15 (g90) PCL/PLA/DCP/20 (h90) PCL/PLA/DCP/25 (i90) PCL/PLA/10 (j90) PCL/PLA/15 (k90) PCL/PLA/20 (l90) PCL/PLA/25 Mag. x500 Conclusions

The following conclusions were drawn: Optimized PCL/PLA composites were successfully prepared with treated palm press fibers. The incorporation of DCP improved the blend compatibility and biodegradation. The alkali treatment increased the interaction between the fibers and the matrix. The rate of biodegradation of the composites increased with fiber load (10 wt. % to 25 wt. %) Thank You For Your

Attention Let Us Meet Again We welcome you all to our future conferences of OMICS Group International Please Visit: Contact us at [email protected] [email protected]

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