Ridgefield Health Department Ridgefield, CT 06877 Blastlyme.org Which tick-borne diseases should we be concerned about? Several diseases can be acquired from the bite of an infected blacklegged (deer) tick: Lyme Disease Babesiosis
Anaplasmosis Borrelia miyamotoi Powassan Disease P PHOTOGRAPH BY JIM GATHANY, CDC/PHIL/CORBIS Named after first cases in Lyme, CT (1975)
Photograph by Michael Patnaude, University of Florida. Lyme disease in the United States According to the CDC, Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne illness in the United States with more than 300,000 new cases annually. In 2014, it was the 5th most common nationally reportable disease with 96% of confirmed cases reported from 14 states: Connecticut Delaware New York
Pennsylvania Rhode Island Virginia Wisconsin Massachusetts Maine Maryland Vermont New Jersey New Hampshire Minnesota
Lyme disease is on the rise. Lyme disease cases 2001 Lyme disease cases 2014 Celebrities with Lyme disease Who gets tick-borne diseases? Everyone. Confirmed Lyme disease cases by age and sex--United States, 2001-2010 What exactly is Lyme disease?
Lyme disease is a bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi. This organism attacks various organ systems in the body: Nervous System Activity System
Circulatory System Early Lyme disease symptoms Symptoms typically appear 2-30 days after the bite of an infected tick. Early symptoms:
Expanding "bull's-eye" rash Flu-like Symptoms Fever Malaise Fatigue Headache Muscle aches Joint aches Examples of the "bull's-eye" rash:
L. Zemel S. Luger J. Stratton A. McDonald *Photos provided by Pfizer Later signs and symptoms
Severe headaches and neck stiffness Additional rashes Arthritis
Facial or Bell's palsy Intermittent pain Heart palpitations or an irregular heart beat (Lyme carditis) Episodes of dizziness or shortness of breath Inflammation of the brain and spinal cord Nerve pain Shooting pains, numbness, or tingling Problems with short-term memory Source: National Library of Medicine How is Lyme disease diagnosed?
Lyme disease is diagnosed based on symptoms, physical findings (e.g., rash), and the possibility of exposure to infected ticks; laboratory testing is helpful if used correctly. What is babesiosis? A malaria-like illness caused by a protozoan called Babesia microti.
This parasite invades and lives within red blood cells. http://www.aafp.org Arrows indicate infected RBCs Symptoms are mostly nonspecific, and the illness can range from very mild to very severe; although most people will not have symptoms. Symptoms may include:
Fever Drenching sweats Muscle or joint aches or pains A blood test may find a breakdown of the red blood cells called hemolytic anemia What is anaplasmosis? Anaplasmosis was formerly known as human
granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE). These bacteria invade and live in white blood cells called granulocytes. Note the clumps of Ehrlichia in a white blood cell http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com Much like babesiosis, symptoms are mostly nonspecific, and the illness can range from very mild to very severe. Most patients will experience:
Rapid onset of fever Shaking Chills Muscle or joint pain Severe headache Each tick-borne disease has its own test and may have a different treatment protocol.
Are there any vaccines? There was a vaccine for Lyme disease several years ago, but it is no longer available If you were previously vaccinated for Lyme disease you are NO LONGER protected
There are no vaccines available for any of the tick-borne diseases, so PREVENTION is key What do blacklegged ticks look like? It varies based on their stage Adult Female: Reddish body size comparable to a
sesame seed Adult Male: Slightly smaller than female, completely dark brown Nymph: Size comparable to
that of a poppy seed From left to right: Adult female, adult male, nymph, larva Larva: Size smaller than that of a pin head Larvae may not transmit Lyme, but
do transmit other diseases. The two year tick life cycle Year One Spring eggs Year Two Summer larvae
Meal Meal 11 Autumn Winter Spring nymphs Meal
Meal 22 Source: Center for Vector-Borne Disease, University of Rhode Island Summer Autumn Winter adults
Meal Meal 33 Adults Adults mate, mate, produce produce eggs eggs & & die die When are you most likely to get Lyme disease?
Confirmed Lyme disease cases by month of disease onset--United States, 2001-2010 Where do ticks live? Ticks thrive in shady, moist areas. Engorged blacklegged ticks may fool you. Ticks attach with a unique mouthpart Whats the best way to remove a tick?
Use fine-tipped tweezers. Grasp the tick by the mouthpart close to the skin. Pull straight back with a slow, steady force. Avoid crushing the ticks body. Place tick in a plastic vial or zip-lock bag for testing. Wash area and disinfect the bite site. Record the date and location of the bite.
Watch for early symptoms. Tick Removal DONTs Dont squeeze or rupture the tick. Dont pour kerosene or nail polish remover on the tick. Dont rub Vaseline or Petroleum Jelly on the tick. Dont do ANYTHING that might otherwise traumatize the tick. Where do you send a tick for testing?
Check with your local Health Department to see if they identify and/or test ticks. UMass Amherst Laboratory of Medical Zoology and University of Connecticut Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory identify and test ticks for a fee. University of Rhode Island Tick Encounter Resource Center and University of Maine Cooperative Extension Service identify ticks for free.
Some private labs will test ticks for a fee. Dont wait for tick-testing results if you suspect that you have contracted a tickborne disease. See your physician immediately! How do you avoid getting a tick bite? BLAST Bathe or shower soon after coming indoors. Bathing or showering within 2 hours of outdoor activity
helps remove ticks that havent attached. B LAST Look for ticks and rashes. Tick bites are usually painless, therefore most people are unaware when they have a tick attached to them. Ticks are very small, and
may feed anywhere on the body, so check thoroughly. Check under your arms, in your ears, the belly button and behind your knees. CDC Do a tick check every night.
AST BL Apply repellents. SKIN If you choose to use a tick repellent on your skin, the CDC recommends using a product that contains DEET at a concentration of at least 20%.
CLOTHING A permethrin based product is recommended for clothing and gear. It provides great protection against ticks! Photos CDC Testing natural products to repel or kill ticks 2-undecanone Garlic
oil Nookatone Mixed Essential Oils rosemary, thyme, lemongrass, geranio Fungus BLA ST Spray the edges of your yard.
Photo: JReid A single perimeter spray for tick control once in the Spring can reduce the number of ticks in your yard by up to 8090%. If you decide to spray your yard, it is best to
hire a licensed professional who is trained to do this job efficiently and safely. Tick Management Handbook, CT Agricultural Experiment Station Create a Tick-Safe zone.
Westport/Weston Health District Clear tall grasses and brush. Add a 3-ft wide barrier of wood chips or gravel between lawns and wooded areas. Mow the lawn frequently.
Keep leaves raked. Stack wood neatly in a dry area. Keep playground equipment and patio furniture away from yard edges and in a sunny location. Choose deer resistant plants. Avoid feeding wild animals & birds. BLAS T Treat your pets.
Check your pets for ticks after coming indoors. Ask your vet about vaccines and products that will help your pet repel ticks.
Dont sleep with your pet because ticks on your pet may crawl on to you. Join our team and help tackle tick-borne diseases! Information provided by:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) CT Agricultural Experiment Station Tick Management Handbook CT Department of Public Health Westport/Weston Health District Yale School of Public Health Peridomestic Lyme Disease Prevention: Results of a Population-Based CaseControl Study Neeta P. Connally, PhD, Amanda J. Durante, PhD, Kimberly M. Yousey-Hindes, MPH, James I. Meek, MPH, Randall S. Nelson, DVM, Robert Heimer, PhD
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