Chapter 2

Chapter 5 A Closer Look at Instruction Set Architectures Chapter 5 Objectives Understand the factors involved in instruction set architecture design. Gain familiarity with memory addressing modes. Understand the concepts of instruction-level pipelining and its affect upon execution performance. 2

5.1 Introduction This chapter builds upon the ideas in Chapter 4. We present a detailed look at different instruction formats, operand types, and memory access methods. We will see the interrelation between machine organization and instruction formats. This leads to a deeper understanding of computer architecture in general. 3 5.2 Instruction Formats

Instruction sets are differentiated by the following: 4 Number of bits per instruction. Stack-based or register-based. Number of explicit operands per instruction. Operand location.

Types of operations. Type and size of operands. 5.2 Instruction Formats Instruction set architectures are measured according to: Main memory space occupied by a program. Instruction complexity. Instruction length (in bits). Total number of instructions in the instruction set. 5

5.2 Instruction Formats In designing an instruction set, consideration is given to: Instruction length. Whether short, long, or variable. Number of operands. Number of addressable registers. Memory organization. Whether byte- or word addressable. Addressing modes. Choose any or all: direct, indirect or indexed.

6 5.2 Instruction Formats Byte ordering, or endianness, is another major architectural consideration. If we have a two-byte integer, the integer may be stored so that the least significant byte is followed by the most significant byte or vice versa. In little endian machines, the least significant byte is followed by the most significant byte. Big endian machines store the most significant byte first (at the lower address). 7

5.2 Instruction Formats As an example, suppose we have the hexadecimal number 0x12345678. The big endian and small endian arrangements of the bytes are shown below. 8 5.2 Instruction Formats A larger example: A computer uses 32-bit integers. The values 0xABCD1234, 0x00FE4321, and 0x10 would be stored sequentially in memory, starting at address 0x200 as below.

9 5.2 Instruction Formats Big endian: Is more natural. The sign of the number can be determined by looking at the byte at address offset 0. Strings and integers are stored in the same order. Little endian: Makes it easier to place values on non-word boundaries. Conversion from a 16-bit integer address to a 32-bit integer address does not require any arithmetic.

10 5.2 Instruction Formats The next consideration for architecture design concerns how the CPU will store data. We have three choices: 1. A stack architecture 2. An accumulator architecture 3. A general purpose register architecture. In choosing one over the other, the tradeoffs are simplicity (and cost) of hardware design with execution speed and ease of use. 11

5.2 Instruction Formats In a stack architecture, instructions and operands are implicitly taken from the stack. A stack cannot be accessed randomly. In an accumulator architecture, one operand of a binary operation is implicitly in the accumulator. One operand is in memory, creating lots of bus traffic. In a general purpose register (GPR) architecture, registers can be used instead of memory. Faster than accumulator architecture. Efficient implementation for compilers.

Results in longer instructions. 12 5.2 Instruction Formats Most systems today are GPR systems. There are three types: Memory-memory where two or three operands may be in memory. Register-memory where at least one operand must be in a register. Load-store where no operands may be in memory. The number of operands and the number of

available registers has a direct affect on instruction length. 13 5.2 Instruction Formats Stack machines use one - and zero-operand instructions. LOAD and STORE instructions require a single memory address operand. Other instructions use operands from the stack implicitly. PUSH and POP operations involve only the stacks top element.

Binary instructions (e.g., ADD, MULT) use the top two items on the stack. 14 5.2 Instruction Formats Stack architectures require us to think about arithmetic expressions a little differently. We are accustomed to writing expressions using infix notation, such as: Z = X + Y. Stack arithmetic requires that we use postfix notation: Z = XY+. This is also called reverse Polish notation, (somewhat) in honor of its Polish inventor, Jan Lukasiewicz (1878 1956).

15 5.2 Instruction Formats The principal advantage of postfix notation is that parentheses are not used. For example, the infix expression, Z = (X Y) + (W U), becomes: Z = X Y W U + in postfix notation.

16 5.2 Instruction Formats Example: Convert the infix expression (2+3) - 6/3 to postfix: The sum 2 + 3 in parentheses takes 2 3+ - 6/3 precedence; we replace the term with 2 3 +. 17 5.2 Instruction Formats

Example: Convert the infix expression (2+3) - 6/3 to postfix: The division operator takes next precedence; 2 3+ - 6 3/ we replace 6/3 with 6 3 /. 18 5.2 Instruction Formats Example: Convert the infix expression (2+3) - 6/3 to postfix:

2 3+ 6 3/ - The quotient 6/3 is subtracted from the sum of 2 + 3, so we move the - operator to the end. 19 5.2 Instruction Formats Example: Use a stack to evaluate the postfix expression 2 3 + 6 3 / - : Scanning the expression from 2

3 left to right, push operands onto the stack, until an operator is found 20 3 2 + 6

3 / - 5.2 Instruction Formats Example: Use a stack to evaluate the postfix expression 2 3 + 6 3 / - : Pop the two operands and carry 2

3 out the operation indicated by the operator. Push the result back on the stack. 21 5 + 6

3 / - 5.2 Instruction Formats Example: Use a stack to evaluate the postfix expression 2 3 + 6 3 / - : 2 Push operands until another

operator is found. 3 3 6 5 22 + 6

3 / - 5.2 Instruction Formats Example: Use a stack to evaluate the postfix expression 2 3 + 6 3 / - : 2 3

Carry out the operation and push the result. 2 5 23 + 6 3

/ - 5.2 Instruction Formats Example: Use a stack to evaluate the postfix expression 2 3 + 6 3 / - : Finding another operator, carry 2 3 out the operation and push the

result. The answer is at the top of the stack. 24 3 + 6 3

/ - 5.2 Instruction Formats Let's see how to evaluate an infix expression using different instruction formats. With a three-address ISA, (e.g.,mainframes), the infix expression, Z = X Y + W U might look like this: MULT R1,X,Y MULT R2,W,U

ADD Z,R1,R2 25 5.2 Instruction Formats In a two-address ISA, (e.g.,Intel, Motorola), the infix expression, Z = X Y + W U might look like this: LOAD R1,X MULT R1,Y LOAD R2,W MULT R2,U

ADD R1,R2 STORE Z,R1 Note: One-address ISAs usually require one operand to be a register. 26 5.2 Instruction Formats In a one-address ISA, like MARIE, the infix expression, Z = X Y + W U

looks like this: LOAD X MULT Y STORE TEMP LOAD W MULT U ADD TEMP STORE Z 27 5.2 Instruction Formats In a stack ISA, the postfix expression,

Z = X Y W U + might look like this: PUSH X PUSH Y MULT PUSH W PUSH U MULT ADD POP Z 28 Would this program require more execution

time than the corresponding (shorter) program that we saw in the 3-address ISA? 5.2 Instruction Formats We have seen how instruction length is affected by the number of operands supported by the ISA. In any instruction set, not all instructions require the same number of operands. Operations that require no operands, such as HALT, necessarily waste some space when fixedlength instructions are used. One way to recover some of this space is to use expanding opcodes. 29

5.2 Instruction Formats A system has 16 registers and 4K of memory. We need 4 bits to access one of the registers. We also need 12 bits for a memory address. If the system is to have 16-bit instructions, we have two choices for our instructions: 30 5.2 Instruction Formats If we allow the length of the opcode to vary, we could create a

very rich instruction set: 31 5.2 Instruction Formats Example: Given 8-bit instructions, is it possible to allow the following to be encoded? 3 instructions with two 3-bit operands. 2 instructions with one 4-bit operand. 4 instructions with one 3-bit operand. We need: 3 23 = 192 bits for the 3-bit operands 2 24 = 32 bits for the 4-bit operands

4 23 = 32 bits for the 3-bit operands. Total: 256 bits. 32 5.2 Instruction Formats With a total of 256 bits required, we can exactly encode our instruction set in 8 bits! We need: 3 23 = 192 bits for the 3-bit operands 2 24 = 32 bits for the 4-bit operands 4 23 = 32 bits for the 3-bit operands. Total: 256 bits. One such encoding is shown on the next slide.

33 5.2 Instruction Formats 34 5.3 Instruction types Instructions fall into several broad categories that you should be familiar with: Data movement. Arithmetic. Boolean. Can you think of some

Bit manipulation. examples of each of these? I/O. Control transfer. Special purpose. 35 5.4 Addressing Addressing modes specify where an operand is located. They can specify a constant, a register, or a memory location. The actual location of an operand is its effective

address. Certain addressing modes allow us to determine the address of an operand dynamically. 36 5.4 Addressing Immediate addressing is where the data is part of the instruction. Direct addressing is where the address of the data is given in the instruction. Register addressing is where the data is located in a register. Indirect addressing gives the address of the

register holds an offset relative to the address given in the instruction, a base register holds a base address where the address field represents a displacement from this base. 38 5.4 Addressing In stack addressing the operand is assumed to be on top of the stack. There are many variations to these addressing modes including:

Indirect indexed. Base/offset. Self-relative Auto increment - decrement. We wont cover these in detail. Lets look at an example of the principal addressing modes. 39 5.4 Addressing For the instruction shown, what value is loaded into

the accumulator for each addressing mode? 40 5.4 Addressing For the instruction shown, what value is loaded into the accumulator for each addressing mode? 41 5.5 Instruction Pipelining Some CPUs divide the fetch-decode-execute cycle into smaller steps. These smaller steps can often be executed in parallel

to increase throughput. Such parallel execution is called instruction pipelining. Instruction pipelining provides for instruction level parallelism (ILP) The next slide shows an example of instruction pipelining. 42 5.5 Instruction Pipelining Suppose a fetch-decode-execute cycle were broken into the following smaller steps: 1. Fetch instruction.

4. Fetch operands. 2. Decode opcode. 5. Execute instruction. 3. Calculate effective 6. Store result. address of operands. Suppose we have a six-stage pipeline. S1 fetches the instruction, S2 decodes it, S3 determines the

address of the operands, S4 fetches them, S5 executes the instruction, and S6 stores the result. 43 5.5 Instruction Pipelining For every clock cycle, one small step is carried out, and the stages are overlapped. S1. Fetch instruction. S4. Fetch operands. S2. Decode opcode.

S5. Execute. S3. Calculate effective S6. Store result. address of operands. 44 5.5 Instruction Pipelining The theoretical speedup offered by a pipeline can be determined as follows:

Let tp be the time per stage. Each instruction represents a task, T, in the pipeline. The first task (instruction) requires k tp time to complete in a k-stage pipeline. The remaining (n - 1) tasks emerge from the pipeline one per cycle. So the total time to complete the remaining tasks is (n - 1)tp. Thus, to complete n tasks using a k-stage pipeline requires: (k tp) + (n - 1)tp = (k + n - 1)tp. 45 5.5 Instruction Pipelining If we take the time required to complete n tasks without a pipeline and divide it by the time it takes to complete n tasks using a pipeline, we find:

If we take the limit as n approaches infinity, (k + n - 1) approaches n, which results in a theoretical speedup of: 46 5.5 Instruction Pipelining Our neat equations take a number of things for granted. First, we have to assume that the architecture supports fetching instructions and data in parallel. Second, we assume that the pipeline can be kept filled at all times. This is not always the case.

Pipeline hazards arise that cause pipeline conflicts and stalls. 47 5.5 Instruction Pipelining An instruction pipeline may stall, or be flushed for any of the following reasons: Resource conflicts. Data dependencies. Conditional branching. Measures can be taken at the software level as well as at the hardware level to reduce the effects of

these hazards, but they cannot be totally eliminated. 48 5.6 Real-World Examples of ISAs We return briefly to the Intel and MIPS architectures from the last chapter, using some of the ideas introduced in this chapter. Intel introduced pipelining to their processor line with its Pentium chip. The first Pentium had two five-stage pipelines. Each subsequent Pentium processor had a longer pipeline than its predecessor with the Pentium IV having a 24-stage pipeline.

The Itanium (IA-64) has only a 10-stage pipeline. 49 5.6 Real-World Examples of ISAs Intel processors support a wide array of addressing modes. The original 8086 provided 17 ways to address memory, most of them variants on the methods presented in this chapter. Owing to their need for backward compatibility, the Pentium chips also support these 17 addressing modes. The Itanium, having a RISC core, supports only

one: register indirect addressing with optional post increment. 50 5.6 Real-World Examples of ISAs MIPS was an acronym for Microprocessor Without Interlocked Pipeline Stages. The architecture is little endian and wordaddressable with three-address, fixed-length instructions. Like Intel, the pipeline size of the MIPS processors has grown: The R2000 and R3000 have five-stage pipelines.; the R4000 and R4400 have 8-stage pipelines.

51 5.6 Real-World Examples of ISAs The R10000 has three pipelines: A five-stage pipeline for integer instructions, a seven-stage pipeline for floating-point instructions, and a sixstate pipeline for LOAD/STORE instructions. In all MIPS ISAs, only the LOAD and STORE instructions can access memory. The ISA uses only base addressing mode. The assembler accommodates programmers who need to use immediate, register, direct, indirect register, base, or indexed addressing modes. 52

5.6 Real-World Examples of ISAs The Java programming language is an interpreted language that runs in a software machine called the Java Virtual Machine (JVM). A JVM is written in a native language for a wide array of processors, including MIPS and Intel. Like a real machine, the JVM has an ISA all of its own, called bytecode. This ISA was designed to be compatible with the architecture of any machine on which the JVM is running. The next slide shows how the pieces fit together. 53

5.6 Real-World Examples of ISAs 54 5.6 Real-World Examples of ISAs Java bytecode is a stack-based language. Most instructions are zero address instructions. The JVM has four registers that provide access to five regions of main memory. All references to memory are offsets from these registers. Java uses no pointers or absolute memory references. Java was designed for platform interoperability, not

performance! 55 5.6 Real-World Examples of ISAs You may not have heard of ARM but most likely use an ARM processor every day. It is the most widely used 32-bit instruction architecture: 95%+ of smartphones, 80%+ of digital cameras 40%+ of all digital television sets Founded in 1990, by Apple and others, ARM (Advanced RISC Machine) is now a British firm,

ARM Holdings. ARM Holdings does not manufacture these processors; it sells licenses to manufacture. 56 5.6 Real-World Examples of ISAs ARM is a load/store architecture : all data processing must be performed on values in registers, not in memory. It uses fixed-length, three-operand instructions and simple addressing modes ARM processors have a minimum of a three-stage pipeline (consisting of fetch, decode, and execute); Newer ARM processors have deeper pipelines (more

stages). Some ARM8 implementations have 13-stage integer pipelines 57 5.6 Real-World Examples of ISAs ARM has 37 total registers but their visibility depends on the processor mode. ARM allows multiple register transfers. It can simultaneously load or store any subset of the16 general-purpose registers from/to sequential memory addresses. Control flow instructions include unconditional and

conditional branching and procedure calls Most ARM instructions execute in a single cycle, provided there are no pipeline hazards or memory accesses. 58 Chapter 5 Conclusion ISAs are distinguished according to their bits per instruction, number of operands per instruction, operand location and types and sizes of operands. Endianness as another major architectural consideration. CPU can store store data based on

1. A stack architecture 2. An accumulator architecture 3. A general purpose register architecture. 59 Chapter 5 Conclusion Instructions can be fixed length or variable length. To enrich the instruction set for a fixed length instruction set, expanding opcodes can be used. The addressing mode of an ISA is also another important factor. We looked at:

Immediate Direct Register Register Indirect Indirect Indexed Based Stack 60 Chapter 5 Conclusion A k-stage pipeline can theoretically produce execution speedup of k as compared to a nonpipelined machine. Pipeline hazards such as resource conflicts and conditional branching prevents this speedup

from being achieved in practice. The Intel, MIPS, JVM, and ARM architectures provide good examples of the concepts presented in this chapter. 61 End of Chapter 5 62

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