# Chapter 2

Section 2-2 Frequency Distributions Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 1 Frequency Distribution Frequency Distribution (or Frequency Table) It shows how a data set is partitioned among all of several categories (or classes) by listing

all of the categories along with the number of data values in each of the categories. Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 2 Pulse Rates of Females and Males Original Data Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

2.1 - 3 Frequency Distribution Pulse Rates of Females The frequency for a particular class is the number of original values that fall into that class.

Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 4 Lower Class Limits Lower class limits are the smallest numbers that can actually belong to different classes Lower Class Limits Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson

Education, Inc. 2.1 - 5 Upper Class Limits Upper class limits are the largest numbers that can actually belong to different classes Upper Class Limits Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

2.1 - 6 Class Boundaries Class boundaries are the numbers used to separate classes, but without the gaps created by class limits 59.5 69.5 Class Boundaries

79.5 89.5 99.5 109.5 119.5 129.5 Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 7 Class Midpoints

They are the values in the middle of the classes and can be found by adding the lower class limit to the upper class limit and dividing the sum by two 64.5 74.5 Class Midpoints 84.5 94.5

104.5 114.5 124.5 Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 8 Class Width Class width is the difference between two consecutive lower class limits or two consecutive lower class boundaries

10 Class Width 10 10 10 10 10 Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson

Education, Inc. 2.1 - 9 Constructing A Frequency Distribution 1. Determine the number of classes (should be between 5 and 20). 2. Calculate the class width (round up). class width (maximum value) (minimum value)

number of classes 3. Starting point: Choose the minimum data value or a convenient value below it as the first lower class limit. 4. List the lower class limits in a vertical column and proceed to enter the upper class limits. 5. Take each individual data value and put a tally mark in the appropriate class. Add the tally marks to get the frequency. Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 10

Relative Frequency Distribution includes the same class limits as a frequency distribution, but the frequency of a class is replaced with a relative frequencies (a proportion) or a percentage frequency ( a percent) Relative frequency = class frequency sum of all frequencies class frequency

Percentage = 100% frequency sum of all frequencies Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 11 Relative Frequency Distribution *

Copyright 2010, 2007, * 12/40 100 = 30% Total Frequency = 40 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 12 Cumulative Frequencies Cumulative Frequency Distribution

Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 13 Section 2-3 Histograms Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 14

Histogram A graph consisting of bars of equal width drawn adjacent to each other (without gaps). The horizontal scale represents the classes of quantitative data values and the vertical scale represents the frequencies. The heights of the bars correspond to the frequency values. Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

2.1 - 15 Histogram Basically a graphic version of a frequency distribution. Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 16 Histogram The bars on the horizontal scale are labeled

with one of the following: (1) Class boundaries (2) Class midpoints Horizontal Scale for Histogram: Use class boundaries or class midpoints. Vertical Scale for Histogram: Use the class frequencies. Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 17 Relative Frequency Histogram

Has the same shape and horizontal scale as a histogram, but the vertical scale is marked with relative frequencies instead of actual frequencies Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 18 Normal Distribution In later chapters, there will be frequent reference to data with a normal distribution. One key characteristic of a normal distribution is that it has

a bell shape. The frequencies start low, then increase to one or two high frequencies, then decrease to a low frequency. The distribution is approximately symmetric, with frequencies preceding the maximum being roughly a mirror image of those that follow the

maximum. Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 19 Histogram with Bell Shape Objective is not simply to construct a histogram, but rather to understand something about the data. When graphed, a normal distribution has a bell shape. Characteristic of the bell shape are (1)

The frequencies increase to a maximum, and then decrease, and (2) symmetry, with the left half of the graph roughly a mirror image of the right half. The histogram on the next slide illustrates this. Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 20

Histogram with Bell Shape Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 21 Section 2-4 Statistical Graphics Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

2.1 - 22 Frequency Polygon Uses line segments connected to points directly above class midpoint values Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 23 Relative Frequency Polygon

Uses relative frequencies (proportions or percentages) for the vertical scale. Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 24 Ogive A line graph that depicts cumulative frequencies Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc.

2.1 - 25 Dot Plot Consists of a graph in which each data value is plotted as a point (or dot) along a scale of values. Dots representing equal values are stacked. Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 26

Stemplot (or Stem-and-Leaf Plot) Represents quantitative data by separating each value into two parts: the stem (such as the leftmost digit) and the leaf (such as the rightmost digit) Pulse Rates of Females Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 27 Bar Graph Uses bars of equal width to show

frequencies of categories of qualitative data. Vertical scale represents frequencies or relative frequencies. Horizontal scale identifies the different categories of qualitative data. A multiple bar graph has two or more sets of bars, and is used to compare two or more data sets. Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 28

Multiple Bar Graph Median Income of Males and Females Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 29 Pareto Chart A bar graph for qualitative data, with the bars arranged in descending order according to frequencies

Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 30 Pie Chart A graph depicting qualitative data as slices of a circle, size of slice is proportional to frequency count Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 31

Scatter Plot (or Scatter Diagram) A plot of paired (x,y) data with a horizontal x-axis and a vertical y-axis. Used to determine whether there is a relationship between the two variables Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 32 Time-Series Graph Data that have been collected at different points in

time: time-series data Copyright 2010, 2007, 2004 Pearson Education, Inc. 2.1 - 33

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