Chapter 26 The Qianlong Emperor (reigned 1735-1796) Tradition and Change in East Asia 1 The Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
Ming (Brilliant) dynasty comes to power after Mongol Yuan dynasty driven out Founded by Emperor Hongwu (r. 1368-1398) Used traveling officials called mandarins and large number of eunuchs to maintain control Emperor Yongle (r. 1403-1424) experiments with sea expeditions under Admiral Zheng He, moves capital north to Beijing to deter Mongol attacks Hongwu Emperor Yongle Emperor, also known as Zhu Di 2 Ming China, 1368-1644 3
The Great Wall Origins before fourth century B.C.E., with ruins from Qin dynasty in third century B.C.E. The current wall dates from the Ming period, mostly rebuilt in the fifteenth to sixteenth century 1,550 miles, and between 33 and 49 feet high As many as 25,000 guard towers were constructed Barracks for housing soldiers
Protected against Mongol raids, and later Manchu raids 4 The Great Wall of China 5 Eradicating the Mongol Past Ming emperors encourage abandonment of Mongol names, dress Support study of Confucian classics Restoration of old form of government bureaucracy with the renewal of the civil service
examinations 6 Ming Decline In the sixteenth century, maritime pirates harm coastal trade and hurt China economically The Ming navy and government are unable to respond effectively Emperors secluded in Forbidden City, the palace compound in Beijing, and increasingly lose touch with the outside
Hedonists: Many emperors begin top pursue their own pleasure rather than to state affairs Emperor Wanli (r. 1572-1620): In the last twenty years of his rule, he abandons governance, leaving it to the imperial eunuchs. He ignores the increasing threat of Manchu raids from the north. 7 Ming Collapse
Famine, peasant rebellions become more frequent in the early seventeenth century Chinese peasant rebels take Beijing in 1644; the last Ming emperor, Chongzhen, commits suicide A Ming general fighting the rebels makes an alliance with Manchu fighters, who enter from the north and retake city Manchus refuse to allow reestablishment of Ming dynasty Establish Qing (Pure) Dynasty, installing Shunzhi as ruler of China Shunzhi Emperor, the first Qing emperor to reign over China (1644 1661) 8
The Qing Empire, 1644-1911 9 The Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) Manchus originally pastoral nomads, north of Great Wall Chieftain Nurhaci (r. 1616-1626) unifies tribes into state, develops laws, and strong military Establishes control over Korea, Mongolia, China War with remaining Ming loyalists last until 1680
Support from many Chinese who were fed up with Ming corruption Manchus forbid intermarriage with Han Chinese and the study of Manchu language by non-Manchus; force Manchu hairstyles on Han men as sign of loyalty 10 Emperor Kangxi (r. 1661-1722) Consolidates Qing rule, defeating
last Ming resistance Confucian scholar, poet Military Conquests: island of Taiwan, Tibet, skirmished with the Russian empire to establish western border, and crushed a Mongol revolt Persuaded Ming scholar-bureaucrats to support the Qing 11 Emperor Qianlong (r. 1736-1795) Grandson of Kangxi
Rule was the height of the power and prestige of the Qing dynasty Great prosperity, tax collection cancelled on several occasions Pacified the western frontier Mongols, Uyghurs, Kazakhs, etc.but failed to conquer Burma and Vietnam to the south, but made them vassal states Young Qianlong at the beginning of his reign (1737) painted by the Stepped down from the throne in 1795 so Italian Jesuit, Giuseppe Castiglione. as not to reign longer than his grandfather, Kangxi, out of filial respect 12
The Son of Heaven Ming, Qing emperors were considered quasidivine, with the title Son of Heaven Hundreds of concubines and thousands of eunuch servants served within the Forbidden City in Beijing Clothing designs and name characters of the emperors were forbidden to rest of population The kowtow: three bows, nine head-knocks (British ambassador in 1793 refuses to perform) 13
The Forbidden City Hall of Heavenly Purity, which served as the emperors quarters and then the audience hall during the Qing Dynasty Forbidden City as viewed from a hill to the north 14 The Forbidden City Map of the inner Beijing city walls, including the Forbidden City 15
The Scholar-Bureaucrats Ran government on a day-to-day basis Graduates from intense civil service examinations Open only to men Curriculum: Confucian classics, calligraphy, poetry, essay writing Also: history, literature 16 The Civil Service Examinations
First used in the Sui dynasty in 605 C.E., used in a limited way in the Tang (618-907), and used on a broader scale during the Song (960-1269) District, provincial, and metropolitan levels Only 300 allowed to pass at highest level Multiple attempts common Students expected to bring bedding, chamber pots for three-day uninterrupted examinations
Students searched for printed materials before entering private cells 17 Examination System and Society Ferocious competition Qing dynasty: One million degree holders compete for 20,000 government positions
Remainder turn to teaching, tutoring positions Some corruption, cheating Advantage for wealthy classes: hiring private tutors, etc. But open to all males, tremendous opportunity for social mobility 18 The Patriarchal Family Filial piety understood as duty of child to parent on the familial level, and then the individual to emperor on the societal and political level
Eldest son favored; birth order accords status in families Clan-based authority groups augment government services 19 Gender Relations Males receive preferential status Economic factor: girls join husbands family Widows strongly encouraged not to remarry
Infanticide of girls common Chaste widows honored with ceremonial arches celebrating their devotion to dead husbands Men control divorce Grounds: from infidelity to talking too much 20 Foot Binding
Origins in Song dynasty (960-1279 CE) Linen strips bind and deform female childs feet Perceived aesthetic value Statement of social status and/or expectations Commoners might bind feet of especially pretty girls to enhance marriage prospects 21 Binding Feet 22 Population Growth and Economic Development
Only 11 percent of China arable Intense, garden-style agriculture necessary American food crops introduced in seventeenth century Maize, sweet potatoes, peanuts Rebellion and war reduce population in seventeenth century Deaths offset by nutrition from American crops 23
Chinese Population Growth 24 Foreign Trade Silk, porcelain, tea, lacquerware Chinese in turn import relatively little Spices, animal skins, woolen textiles, and silver
European traders pay for Chinese goods with silver bullion from Americas After Emperor Yongles early maritime expeditions (1405-1433), Ming dynasty abandons large-scale maritime trade plans 25 Trade in Southeast Asia Chinese merchants continue to be active in southeast Asia, especially Manila Extensive dealings with Dutch VOC with the silk trade until the wars between Ming and Manchus disrupt it
Chinese warlord and Ming loyalist, Koxinga, destroys VOC trading station on Formosa (now Taiwan) in 1662, and hopes to use Formosa as a base to restore the Ming (also tries to conquer the Philippines) 26 Government and Technology During Tang and Song dynasties (seventh to thirteenth century), China is a world leader in technology Stagnates during Ming and Qing dynasties
European cannons purchased, based on early Chinese invention of gunpowder Government suppressed technological advancement, fearing social instability would result Mass labor over productivity 27 Classes in Chinese Society Privileged classes
Working classes Scholar-bureaucrats, gentry Distinctive clothing with ranks Immunity from some legal proceedings, taxes, labor service Peasants, artisans/workers, merchants Confucian doctrine gives greatest status to peasants Merchant activity not actively supported Lower classes
Military, beggars, slaves 28 Neo-Confucianism Version of Confucian thought promoted by Zhu Xi (1130-1200 C.E.) Education at various levels promoted
Confucian morality with Buddhist logic Hanlin Academy in Beijing dictates official interpretation of the Confucian classics, and thus sets standards of evaluation of imperial exams Provincial schools Compilation of massive Yongle Encyclopedia during early Ming (1403-1408) Development of popular novels as well: Dream of the Red Chamber (published 1791) a hugely popular romance 29 Christianity in China Nestorian and Roman Catholic
Christians had presence in China Disappeared with plague and social chaos of fourteenth century Jesuits return under Matteo Ricci (1552-1610), attempt to convert Ming Emperor Wanli Mastered Chinese before first visit in 1601 Brought western mechanical technology Matteo Ricci
Prisms, harpsichords, clocks 30 Confucianism and Christianity Argued that Christianity was consistent with Confucianism Yet few converts in China
Differences due to neo-Confucian distortions Approximately 200,000 mid-eighteenth century, about 0.08 percent of population Christian absolutism difficult for Chinese to accept Franciscans and Dominicans convince pope that Jesuits compromising Christianity with Chinese traditions (e.g. ancestor worship) Emperor Kangxi bans Christian preaching in China 31 The Unification of Japan Shoguns rule Japan, twelfth to sixteenth century
Large landholders with private armies Emperor merely a figurehead Constant civil war: sixteenth century sengoku, country at war Tokugawa Ieyasu (r. 1600-1616) establishes military government Bakufu: tent government Establishes Tokugawa dynasty (1600-1867)
Tokugawa Ieyasu 32 Tokugawa Japan, 1600-1867 33 Control of Daimyo (Great Names) Approximately 260 powerful territorial lords From capital Edo (Tokyo), shogun requires alternate attendance: daimyo forced to spend every other year at court
Independent militaries, judiciaries, schools, foreign relations, etc. Controlled marriage, socializing of daimyo families Beginning 1630s, shoguns restrict foreign relations Travel, import of books forbidden Policy strictly maintained for 200 years 34 Economic Growth in Japan
End of civil conflict contributes to prosperity New crop strains and irrigation systems improve agricultural production Yet population growth moderate, unlike many other places in the world Contraception, late marriage, abortion Infanticide: thinning out the rice shoots; typical method was to smother a babys mouth and nose with wet paper 35 Population Growth
35 30 25 20 Millions 15 10 5 0 1600 1700 1850 36 Social Change
End of civil disturbances create massive unemployment of daimyo, samurai warriors Encouraged to join bureaucracy, scholarship Many declined to poverty, creating a source of social instability Wealthy urban merchant classes develop from trade activity; they become dominant in society 37 Neo-Confucianism in Japan
Chinese cultural influence extends through Tokugawa period Chinese language essential to curriculum Zhu Xi and neo-Confucianism remains popular Native learning also popular in eighteenth century Folk traditions Shintoism: worship of spirits, called kami 38
Floating Worlds (ukiyo) New merchant class develops a new urban culture expressed in entertainment and pleasure industries Ihara Saikaku (1642-1693), The Life of a Man Who Lived for Love: novel that describes the mores of the new urban merchant class; about a member of this new classs sexual adventures from age 8 to 61. Marked contrast to solemn bakufu leadership Kabuki theatre, men playing womens roles
Bunraku puppet theatre Geisha districts 39 Floating Worlds (ukiyo) Kabuki actor dressed as a samurai character Traditional Geisha makeup and hairstyle Bunraku puppet 40 Christianity in Japan
Jesuit Francis Xavier in Japan, 1549 Remarkable success among daimyo Government backlash Daimyo also hoping to establish trade relations with Europeans Fear of foreign intrusion Confucians, Buddhists resent Christian absolutism
Anti-Christian campaign 1587-1639 restricts Christianity, executes staunch Christians Sometimes by crucifixion 41 Persecution of Catholics Twenty-six Christians crucified in Nagasaki in 1597 during the shoguns crackdown 42 Dutch Learning
Dutch presence at Nagasaki principal route for Japanese understanding of the world Before ban on foreign books lifted (1720), Japanese scholars study Dutch to approach European science, medicine, and art Dutch ship approaching the Dutch island trading post on the artificial island of Dejima in Nagasaki harbor 43
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