Classification of Protista & Fungi Kingdom Protista This kingdom is in the Eukarya Domain Little is known of the evolutionary relationships of its members Similar features are just as likely to be due to convergent evolution as they are due to recent common ancestry Protists can be algae/plant-like, animal-like, fungus-like,
unicellular, or occasionally multicellular Algae-Like Protists (or Plant-Like) Autotrophic; obtain energy via photosynthesis 1. Euglenophyta (euglenoids) 1-3 Flagella Can become heterotrophic in darkness Eyespot: phototaxis 2. Dinoflagellata (dinoflagellates) 2 Flagella
Some bioluminescent Some produce nerve toxins which accumulate in shellfish & can cause illness Algae-Like Protists (or Plant-Like) 3. Chrysophyta (golden algae) 2 Flagella Golden or Yellow 4. Bacillariophyta (diatoms) Have tests (shells) with silica (SiO2) 5. Chlorophyta (green algae)
Contain chlorophyll a and b Cellulose cell walls Various gamete types Form colonies (some large volvox) Ancestors of plants? Algae-Like Protists (or Plant-Like) 6. Phaeophyta (brown algae)
Multicellular Flagellated sperm cells Seaweeds, Kelps 7. Rhodophyta (red algae) Red accessory pigments (phycobilins) Multicellular Gametes have no flagella Animal-Like Protists (Protozoa) Heterotrophic; get energy from living things or dead organic matter
1. Rhizopoda (Amoebas) Move by extensions of the body called pseudopodia (also encircles food and absorbs via phagocytosis) 2. Foraminifera (Forams) Have tests usually made of calcium carbonate Ancient marine deposits rich in certain foram tests are good indicators of underlying oil deposits Animal-Like Protists (Protozoa) 3. Zoomastigophora
(zooflagellates) Some mutualistically digest cellulose in the guts of termites Others are parasites: Trypanosoma is one transmitted by tsetse flies and causes African sleeping sickness 4. Sporozoa Parasites of animals No physical means of motility Form spores that can be dispersed and live parts of their life cycle in animals (malaria, for example)
Animal-Like Protists (Protozoa) 5. Ciliophora Distinguished by their cilia, for motion Specialized structures like mouths, anal pores, contractile vacuoles (water balance) Fungus-Like Protists Resemble fungi because they form either filaments or spore-bearing bodies similar to the fungi 1. Acrasiomycota (cellular slime molds)
Exhibit both fungus-like and animallike characteristics during their life cycle Spores germinate to amoebas which feed on bacteria When food gone, they aggregate to one unit and migrate as a slug Cells then form stalks with a spore bearing capsule on top similar to fungi Fungus-Like Protists 2. Myxomycota (plasmodial slime molds) Grow as a single spreading mass (plasmodium) feeding on decaying
veg. When environment dessicates, stalks bearing spore capsules form Haploid spores released from the capsule germinate into haploid amoeboid or flagellated cells, which fuse to form a diploid cell The diploid cell grows into a spreading plasmodium Fungus-Like Protists 3. Oomycota Water molds, downy mildews, and white rusts
Parasites or Saprobes Form filaments (hyphae) which secrete enzymes that digest surrounding substances for absorption and digestion Multinucleated cells Cell walls made of cellulose, rather than the chitin found in true fungi Kingdom Fungi Grow as filaments called hyphae A mass of hyphae is called mycelium
Some fungi have septa (cross walls), which divide the filament into compartments containing a single nucleus When the lack septa, they are called coenocytic (multinucleated) Cell walls consist of chitin (nitrogen-containing polysaccharide) Kingdom Fungi Either parasites or saprobes, absorbing the breakdown products from the action of
digestive enzymes they secrete Many parasitic fungi have hyphae called haustoria that penetrate their host for nutrient absorption Fungi Sex Mostly haploid, but most form temporary diploid structures for sexual reproduction stages: 1. Plasmogamy fusing cells from two different fungal strains to produce a single cell with nuclei from both strains.
Pair of haploid nuclei (1 from each strain) is called a dikaryon. 2. Karyogamy fusing of the two haploid nuclei of a dikaryon to form a single diploid nucleus. 3. Meiosis the diploid nucleus restores haploid condition. Daughter cells develop into haploid spores, which germinate and form haploid hyphae. Fungi Asexual Reproduction Various means: Fragmentation: breaking up of hyphae
Budding: pinching off of small hyphal outgrowth Asexual spores: Sporangiospores produced in saclike capsules called sporangia that are borne on a stalk called a sporangiophore Conidia formed at the tips of specialized hyphae, not enclosed inside sacs. Hyphae bearing conidia are called conidiophores Fungus Groups 1. Zygomycota
Lack septa Reproduce sexually by fusion of hyphae from different strains Example: Bread Mold 2. Ascomycota Have septa Reproduce sexually by producing 8 haploid ascospores in a sac called an ascus Examples: yeasts, powdery mildews, truffles Fungus Groups
3. Basidiomycota Have septa Reproduce sexually by producing haploid basidiospores Fruiting body: basidiocarp (mushroom) 4. Deuteromycota (imperfect fungi) No sexual reproductive cycle has been observed Example: Penicillium Fungus Groups
5. Lichens Mutualistic associations between fungi and algae Algae provides sugar from photosynthesis, sometimes N Fungus provides water and protection from the environment, sometimes shield algae from UV radiation, excess light, or even toxic substances for discouraging grazers Fungus Groups 6. Mycorrhizae
Mutualistic associations between fungi and roots of plants Plant provides sugars to the fungus Fungus increases the ability of the roots to absorb water and minerals, especially phosphorus
Mineral Nutrition Syed Abdullah Gilani Mineral Nutrients Mineral nutrients are elements acquired primarily in the form of inorganic ions from the soil. (example: N, P, and K). Mineral absorption by plants is a very efficient process. Mineral Nutrition Mineral Nutrition...
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