Comparing Plant and Animal Cells

Comparing Plant and Animal Cells

Comparing Plant and Animal Cells OCS Biology Mrs. Bonifay Plant Cells vs Animal Cells: Similarities Both animal and plant cells have cell membranes that enclose the cell.

Both are filled with cytoplasm, a gel-like substance containing chemicals needed by the cell. Both have a nucleus where DNA is stored. Both have ribosomes, protein builders of cells. Similarities Continued Both plant and animal cells have

mitochondria that use oxygen to break down food and release energy. Both kinds of cells have vacuoles that contain food, water, or waste products. (Animal cells usually have many more vacuoles than plant cells do.) A Few More Similarities Both have endoplasmic reticulum,

where a system of tubes transports proteins. Both have Golgi bodies to distribute proteins outside of the cell. Plant and Animal Cells: Differences Plant cells have cell walls that provide structure. Animal cells do not have

cell walls. A few large animal cells have more than one nucleus, but plant cells ALWAYS have just one. Plant cells have chloroplasts for photosynthesis. Animal cells do not. More Differences: Animal cells use mitochondria for

energy production. Plants primarily use chloroplasts to produce energy. Animal cells tend to have many small vacuoles. Mature plant cells may have only one large vacuole. Animals cells have lysosomes, but plant cells do not. Cells & Energy Cells

get energy originally from the sun. In plant cells, chloroplasts trap light energy and change it into chemical energy. The chemical energy is stored in bonds between atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Atoms are the basic unit of matter. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Cells & Energy (continued!)

Chemical bonds hold two or more atoms together to form molecules of sugar. Both plant and animal cells break down these molecules by breaking the chemical bond. When the bonds are broken, energy is released. Cells can either use the energy or store it. Mitochondria in plant and animal cells use oxygen to release this energy.

Cells & Energy (more!) Cells store energy from food in ATP molecules. When the cell needs energy, the ATP is broken down to release it. Cells Using Information The

nucleus is the control center of plant and animal cells. The nucleus contains DNA. DNA and RNA molecules work together to make proteins. Cells require thousands of protein molecules in order to work well. More DNA DNA

in a cells nucleus determines what kind of cell it it. DNA has instructions for all of the cells activities. DNA doubles when a cell divides.

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