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Odejobi, Cecilia Omobola Institute of Education Obafemi Awolowo University Ile-Ife, Osun State Nigeria Introduction Children have no say especially on issues that borders on their development and wellbeing in Yoruba community . parents have major influence in their children's lives. Their perception of how children should be raised is crucial to determining children's behaviour. Introduction Contd. parenting is the process of caring for the physical, emotional, social, and intellectual development of a child from infancy to

adulthood. Parenting behaviours are inherited from ones parents based on the particular style of parenting that is popular in that culture. What Research says Two important elements which anchor parenting are parental responsiveness and parental demandingness. Parental responsiveness is the parents show of affection, acceptance, and involvement to children's special needs and demands. demandingness is the control, maturity demands, and supervision parents exercised on children. What Research Says Contd.

Four types of parenting was identified: Authoritarian parents (obedience, status- oriented and expect their orders obeyed without explanation) Authoritative parents (assertive, listening but not intrusive and restrictive) Uninvolved parents (low in both responsiveness and demandingness (Nancy 1999; Baumrind, 1991). Statement of the problem Observation has shown that: Parenting styles is a predictors of social and moral behaviours in children the extent to which this could influence the feeding habit of children in Yoruba Community has not been thoroughly examined.

Hence this study conceptualized examining the influence between parenting style and feeding habit of children among Yoruba mothers in Yoruba community. Objectives examine the parenting styles among Yoruba mother; assess child feeding practices among Yoruba mothers; determine the relationship between parenting styles and feeding practices of Yoruba Mothers; and examine the influence of parental factors on parenting styles and child feeding habits. Research Question What are the parenting styles among Yoruba mothers in Nigeria?

What are child feeding practices among Yoruba mothers in Nigeria? Is there any relationship between parenting styles and feeding practices of Yoruba Mothers? What are the influence of parental factors on parenting styles and child feeding habits? Methodology survey research design. three hundred (300) Yoruba women from Ife Central LGA Instrument used Parent-Child Feeding Styles (PCFS) that measured parents' pattern and manner of feeding children.

Research Questions 1: What are the parenting styles among Yoruba mothers in Nigeria? Table 1: Percentage Distribution on Mothers Responses S/N Variables Usually Someti F me s F 1 2 3 4 5 When my child refuse new food, I will 74 make him/ her see the value 24.7% (Authoritative) My children must eat food I offer to 157

them at all cost.(authoritarian) 52.3% I give lots of junks to my children 90 because I don't have time. (Laisse- 30.0% faire or indulgent) I give my children whatever food they 159 want. (Indulgent/Laisse- faire) 53.0% I force my children to drink water 106 regularly(Athoritarian) 35.3% 128 42.7% Not at all F

98 32.6% 123 41.0% 199 66.3% 20 6.7% 11 3.7% 109 36.3% 180 60.0% 32 10.7% 14 4.7%

6 7 8 I regulate the amount of food my children consume so that they will not eat too much(authoritative / authoritarian) I do not tolerate my children leaving food on their plates at the end of the meal (Authoritarian) I monitor my childrens intake of snacks .(Authoritative) 42 14.0 % 178

59.3% 80 26.7% 78 26.0% 182 60.7% 40 13.3% 9 3.0% 41 13.7% 250 83.3%

Research Questions 2: What are child feeding practices among Yoruba mothers in Nigeria? Table 2: Percentage Distribution of Participants Responses S/N 1 2 3 4 5 6 Variables Usually F Sometim es F Not at all F

I force food down my childs throat I terrify him/her with cane for him/her to eat I do lose my temper the way he/she eats I pet him/her before he/she could eat I take time with my child when he/she is eating I do not give my child room to pick food 110 36.7% 106 35.3% 151 50.3% 164 54.7%

104 34.7% 194 64.7% 162 7.3% 170 56.7% 134 44.7% 111 37.0% 180 60.0% 88 29.3% 28 9.3% 24 8.0%

15 5.0% 25 8.3% 16 5.3% 8 6.0% 7 8 9 10 11 Whatever I give my child to eat he/ she has to take it without any question I give room for my child to choose what to eat My child dares not eat meat unless he/she finishes his/her

food When my child is eating, I monitor the size of morsel If my child shows reluctance to food, I will just leave him/her. 104 34.7% 172 57.3% 24 8.0% 32 10.7% 45 15.0% 102 34.0%

154 51.3% 166 55.3% 101 33.7% 37 12.3% 22 7.3% 143 47.7% 165 55.0% 120 40.0% 113 37.7%

Research Questions 3: Is there any relationship between styles and feeding practices of Yoruba Mothers? Table 3: Correlation Matrix on Parental Styles and Feeding Practice Parenting styles Child Feeding practices Pearson 1 .486 Parenting Correlation Styles Sig. (2-tailed) .001 N Child Feeding Practices 300

100 .486 1 Pearson Correlation Sig. (2-tailed) N .001 300 300 Table 3 shows that there is a relationship between parental styles of Yoruba mothers on the feeding practices of their children (.001=p<0.05)

Research Questions 4: What are the influences of parental factors on parenting styles ? Table 4: Chi- Square Analysis of Parental Factors on Parental Styles Parental factors Chi-Square Df p- value Decision Variables Values Mothers Age 3.938 4 .369 Not Significant

7.563 3 .488 Not Significant 12.139 2 .269 Not Significant Parenting Occupation Styles Educational Background

Table 4 shows that the parental factors (age, occupation and educational background is not significantly influencing parental styles of mothers. Research Question 4b Table 5 Chi Square Analysis of Parental Factors on Child Feeding Practices Parental factors Chi-Square Df p- value Decision Variable Values Mothers Age 7.746

4 .406 Not Significant 57.189 3 .001 Significant 5.432 2 .203 Not Significant

Childs Feedin Occupation g Educational Background Table 5 shows that the age and educational background of mothers do not significantly influence child feeding practices but mothers occupation is significant( x= 57.189;p<0.05). Summary of Findings Yoruba mothers did not monitor their childrens intake of snacks. Yoruba mothers did not usually give their children an avenue to pick food themselves. parenting styles has a significant

relationship with child feeding practices among Yoruba mother. parental factor variables have no significant influence on the parenting styles among Yoruba mothers, but parent occupation has a significant influence on child feeding Discursion The findings showed that though most Yoruba parents do not monitor their childrens intake of snacks they control their food intake. This tallied with Davison et. al. (2003). Findings also showed that parents are authoritarian in their feeding style for they do not usually give their children an avenue to pick food themselves. It was revealed that a significant relationship exist between parenting styles and child feeding practices among Yoruba mothers )n table 4a of RQ 4, mothers age, occupation

and educational background do not have Conclusion and Recommendation children depend on parents for food which make parents' choices about feeding key determinants of children's eating experiences. Parents who establish regular mealtime routines and who engage in positive yet directive parenting practices during mealtimes have children with the best eating habits It is recommended that parents should utilized child- centered/ authoritative feeding style in order to shaping children eating practices. END THANK YOU

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