Ionic Bond Formation and MO Theory

Ionic Bond Formation and MO Theory

Ionic and Covalent Bonding Including Naming Note: We likely wont make it to covalent nomenclature, this is the one students find FAR easier than ionic. Please refer to the videos and naming hand out for help with this, and as always office hours, discussions, and facebook for extra help. If you dont remember it from high school/1P. TYPES OF BONDS Ionic: trades electrons Metal and a non-metal (oversimplified definition) NaCl

Covalent:shares electrons non-metals (oversimplified definition) delocalized electrons Metallic:metals electrically conductive collective description of many bonds CO Ag For the Following Choose the Ionic Compounds

(based on previous definition) NaCl CH3Cl MgCl2 SO2 Na2SO3 For the binary ionic compounds in the last slide, decide which has more covalent character. Reminder note from videos (see slides included FYI): NaCl

MgCl2 Summary of slides: The more polarizing power and polarizability lead to a bond with more covalent character. Small highly charged cations have more polarizing power. Large highly negatively charged cations have more polarizability. For cations which have more polarizability?

POLARIZING POWER POLARIZABILITY AND COVALENT CHARACTER Polarizability: Anion NaC l MgI2 More electrons that are further from the nucleus Nucleus has less pull on far off electrons. The more energy shells the more polarizability A more negative charge, higher electron:proton ratio, more polarizability

Polarizing power: Cation Less electrons closer to the nucleus Nucleus has larger effect on electrons if they are closer to the nucleus. Less electron shells equal more polarizing power A more positive charge, higher proton:electron ratio, higher polarizing power POLARIZING POWER POLARIZABILITY AND COVALENT CHARACTER NaCl MgI2

More polarizability/polarizing power of the anion/cation leads to a bond with more covalent character Note: This isnt and wont be covered in the videos. You wont need to do lattice energy problems any more complex than shown in the next couple of slides. LATTICE ENERGIES We will not be calculating the numbers, this equation will be

for illustration purposes only. Charge Ion 1 Charge Ion 2 harge increases what happens to energy? ernuclear distance increases what happens to energy? Internuclear radius

Ionic Bond Formation A) Explain why the lattice energy of silver bromide (903 kJ/mol) is greater than that of silver iodide (887 kJ/mol), given that they have a similar arrangement of ions . Hint: How does the charge of Br- and I- compare? Hint: How does the size of Br- and I- compare? Hint: If two charges are closer together, how is the force required to hold them together affected? NAMING: IONIC Name the Compounds we identified as ionic on the first problem.

NaCl MgCl2 Na2SO3 NAMING: COVALENT Name the Compounds below. SO2 NO PCl5

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