Managerial Economics & Business Strategy Chapter 2 Market Forces: Demand and Supply Market Equilibrium Balancing supply and demand Q S= Q d x x Interaction of supply and demand determines the equilibrium price

If price is too low Price S 7 6 5 D Shortage 12 - 6 = 6

6 8 12 Quantity If price is too high Surplus 14 - 6 = 8 Price

S 9 8 7 D 6 8 14

Quantity Price Restrictions Price Ceilings The maximum legal price that can be charged. Examples: Gasoline prices in the 1970s.

Housing in New York City. Proposed restrictions on ATM fees. Impact of a Price Ceiling Price S PF P* P Ceiling D

Shortage Qs Q* Qd Quantity Price Restrictions cont. Price Floors

The minimum legal price that can be charged. Examples: Minimum wage. Current PA minimum wage \$6.25 Increased from \$5.15 January 1, 2007 Increase to \$7.15 by July, 1 2007 Agricultural price supports.

Impact of a Price Floor Price Surplus S PF P* D Qd

Q* QS Quantity Do we understand? (number 6) Suppose demand and supply are given by Qd=50-P and Qs=1/2P-10. What are the equilibrium quantity and price in this market? Determine the quantity demanded, the quantity supplied and the magnitude of the surplus if a price floor of \$42 is imposed in this market.

Determine the quantity demanded, the quantity supplied and the magnitude of the shortage if a price ceiling of \$30 is imposed in this market. Determine the Full Economic Price paid by the consumers Comparative Static Analysis How do the equilibrium price and quantity change when a determinant of supply and/or demand change? Applications of Demand and Supply Analysis Event: The WSJ reports that the prices of PC

components are expected to fall by 5-8 percent over the next six months. Scenario 1: You manage a small firm that manufactures PCs. Scenario 2: You manage a small software company. Use Comparative Static Analysis to see the Big Picture! Comparative static analysis shows how the equilibrium price and quantity will change when a determinant of supply or demand changes. Scenario 1: Implications for a

Small PC Maker Computers are now going to be cheaper to produce What curve is impacted?? supply Big Picture: Impact of decline in component prices on PC market Price of PCs

S S* P0 P* D Q 0 Q*

Quantity of PCs Scenario 2: Software Maker More people buying computers means consumers will want more software Which curve is impacted?? Big Picture: Impact of lower PC prices on the software market Price of Software

S P1 P0 D* D Q0 Q1 Quantity of Software Is this really used?? (number 12) You are the manager of an organization in America that

distributes blood to hospitals in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. A recent report indicates that nearly 50 Americans contract HIV each year through blood transfusions. Although every pint of blood donated in the US undergoes a battery of nine different tests, existing screening methods can detect only the antibodies produced by the bodys immune system, not foreign agents in the blood. Since it takes weeks or even months for these antibodies to build up in the blood, newly infected HIV donors can pass along the virus through blood that has passed existing screening tests. Happily researchers have Developed a series of new tests aimed at detecting

and removing infections from donated blood before it is used in transfusions. The obvious benefit of these tests is the reduced incidence of infections through blood transfusions. The report indicates that the current price of decontaminated blood is \$80 per pint. However, if the new screening methods are adopted, the demand and supply for decontaminated blood will change to Qd=175-P and Qs=2P-200.

What price do you expect to prevail if the new screening methods are adopted? How many units of blood will be used in the US? What is the level of Consumer Surplus and Producer Surplus? Illustrate your findings in a graph What if BOTH supply and demand shift? Depends on the magnitudes and directions of the shifts Examples. Chapter 2 homework

Numbers 7, 10, and 13

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