Chapter 13 Western Expansion, 1830-1848 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Westward Expansion 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Moving West Manifest Destiny
Western Indians The Spanish West and Mexican Independence Many of the Spanish possessions declared independence from the crown. In 1811, Mexico revolted and established itself as an independent nation. The Rocky Mountains and Oregon Country By the 1820s, fur trappers and traders had been pushed out West due to the overly aggressive hunting of beaver in the United States. Traders in the Rocky Mountains would become stereotypical mountain men, cut off from civilization and enjoying their independence. The Oregon Territory was still jointly occupied by British and American settlers.
News of the richness of the soil in the area would start a rush of settlers there, which would make joint occupation more difficult. 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Manifest Destiny coined in 1845 by New York journalist John L. OSullivan; called on Americans to resist any foreign power that attempted to thwart their move westward as important as national pride and racial arrogance were to manifest destiny, economic gain made up its core.
2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Buffalo Hunt, Chasing Back (1860s) 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Fur Traders Descending the Missouri (1845)
2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Moving West, continued The Santa Fe Trail Trail between Santa Fe, NM and St. Louis 1000 mile trail traveling through Indian lands The Overland Trails Trails West towards California and Oregon marked by early pioneers.
2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Wagon Trails West 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. American Pioneers
2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. California The Settlement of California- originally settled by Spanish in 1769 as trading post Californias Missions- set up to convert natives. Overseen by Franciscans and used as churches, forts and barracks. Early Development of California- Mexico sent governor to
oversee land. Allowed Mexicans to own land before gold discovery. The Pathfinder: John Frmont Pathfinder who discovered trails West. Map muched of western continent. California in Turmoil- US tried to purchase land, but was denied by Mexico. 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Mexican government tried to lure Mexicans to
California by granting them huge estates called ranchos, but the plan did not work Americans who championed manifest destiny sought to woo American emigrants from Oregon Country to California as more settlers arrived, the Mexican government grew alarmed the U.S. government made no secret of its desire to acquire California President Jackson tried to purchase it in 1846
John C. Frmont raised an independence movement known as the Bear Flag Revolt in 1846. 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Texas American Settlements- Texas still part of Mexico in 1830s despite heavy Anglo population. 9 to 1. Mexico tries to control immigration, trade and import of slaves
angering Texians. Texas Independence Santa Anna leads army north to quell issues in San Antonio de Bexar. 13 days- Santa Anna surrounds the Alamo. March 2, 1836- Texas declares Independence and Sam Houston becomes commander of army. April 21, 1836- Houston defeats Santa Anna at San Jacinto. March 6, 1836- defeat at Alamo of Jim Bowie, Crockett,and Travis.
2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. The Alamo 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Annexing Texas The Lone Star Republic
Sam Houston becomes 1st President. Texas wants to join the US, but politically waited. Texas was rejected as a state until Dec 29, 1845. 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Whigs and Democrats The Death of Harrison
Harrison becomes ill shortly after inaugural to pneumonia. VP John Tyler assumes office. Tyler enacted the 3rd Bank of US. 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. The Tyler Presidency Foreign Affairs Tyler and his office experience issues with
England during presidency. Maine border eventually is sealed with Webster-Ashburton Treaty of 1842 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Annexing Texas, continued
The Election of 1844- Texas becomes key issue. Whigs denounce the idea, Democrats support. Polk runs on Manifest Destiny and wins. Polks Program- ends 3rd Bank, pushes annexation of Texas and removal of California from Mexico. The State of Texas- Tyler signs annex of Texas angering Mexico. Oregon- Polk worked to secure common boundary
with Britain over territory. 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. IV. Expansion and the MexicanAmerican War A. The Politics of Expansion 1. The problem of Texas 2. The politics of annexation Tyler decided to risk annexing Texas; inflamed sectional tension; for the 1844 election, the Whigs nominated Henry Clay, an opponent of
annexation; the Democrats chose expansionist James K. Polk, who promised to deliver Texas and Oregon to the United States; Polk won the election on a campaign based on manifest destiny. 3. Fifty-four Forty or Fight February 1845, Congress approved a joint resolution offering the Republic of Texas admission as the fifteenth slave state; rather than risk war with Great Britain, Polk agreed to a compromise, dividing the Oregon Territory along the forty-ninth parallel; the Senate approved the treaty 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
The Mexican-American War The Outbreak of War- Mexico breaks relations with US over Texas issue. Polk sends troops to Rio Grande border to protect new US citizens. Mexico considered border farther north and US considered it the river. War is declared and Polk receives funding Opposition to the War
West and Southerners supported war. North opposed it vehemently. 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. The Mexican War Preparing for Battle- both ill prepared. 4 fronts of battle-(Nmexico, Cal, Texas and Mexico) for 2 years. Winfield Scott is eventually removed as Commander and runs against him in 1848 for President.
Gen. Zachary Taylor easily defeats Mexico and secures surrender. Polk refuses the initial terms and war resumes. Polk gives command back to Scott and he captures Mexico City. The Annexation of California- Fremont quickly declares independence from the Bear Flag Republic. 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. Major Campaigns of the
Mexican-American War 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. The Mexican-American War, continued
The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexico receives 15 million. US receives California to New Mexico territory. The Wars Legacies Created surge in national pride. Quick victory leads to expecting Civil War to be quick as well. Many young officers will later fight in the Civil
War. 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. This concludes the Lecture PowerPoint presentation for Chapter 13 Western Expansion, 1830-1848 Please visit the Student Site for more resources:
http://wwnorton.com/college/history/america10/ 2016 W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.
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