Measures to Support Safety in Dental Radiography in the ...

Measures to Support Safety in Dental Radiography in the ...

Measures to Support Safety in Dental Radiography in the Digital Age Pamela Alston, DDS, MPP Lead Oral Health Specialist

Participants will be able to: Describe dental radiation risks Review the proper safety measures for dental x-ray equipment operators

Explain the safety measures necessary for the protection of the students when dental x-rays are taken. Radiation Physics

Energyability to do work Matteroccupies space & has form Mattercomposed of atoms Moleculesmallest particle

X-rays Form of energy penetrating matter Classified as electromagnetic radiation traveling through space with a wavelike motion Shorter the wavelength, greater the

energy Radiation Effects All ionizing radiation is harmful Produces biologic changes in living tissues

Entire x-ray area is a radiation hazard area Electromagnetic Radiation Tissue Damage

Patients tissues absorb some Xrays X-ray Tubehead can leak radiation Biologic Effects

Affects body chemicals, cells, tissues & organs Effects may not become evident for years Time lag is called latent period

Cumulative Effects Repeated exposure damages tissue Some repair occurs Tissues do not return to original state

Acute & Chronic Radiation Exposure Acutelarge dose absorbed in short time Chronicsmall doses absorbed

repeatedly over long period Genetic & Somatic Effects Critical Organs Selective risks from radiation sickness Radiation Units

Roentgen: a unit for measuring the amount of gamma or X-rays in air Rad: a unit for measuring absorbed energy from radiation Rem: a unit for measuring biological damage from radiation

Maximum Permissible Dose Reference: The University of Iowa Environmental Health & Safety

Maximum accumulated lifetime dose calculation: (N-18) x 5 rems/year or (N-18) x 0.05 Sv/year In this formula, N is the operators age. PRH-6.10, R2(c)

An elective oral examination, including bitewing x-rays shall be completed Radiation Safety Ive heard x-rays are bad for me. Do

you really have to take them? Patient Education Dental manufacturers are continually striving to develop

products. Digital radiography requires much less radiation than conventional radiography. With less radiation, the absorbed dose to the patient is significantly

lower. Digital Radiography The dentist has responsibilities for dental imaging

Prescribe only images that are required for dx purposes Ensure radiographic equipment is safe Ensure appropriate shielding Require that all personnel are properly trained & supervised

Use techniques that will produce diagnosticquality images Follow the states radiographic licensing requirements Participate in obtaining informed consent ALARA Concept

All exposure to radiation must be kept to a minimum or as low as reasonably achievable. Protective Devices Aluminum filtration

Collimator Position indicator device Lead apron and thyroid collar Lead Apron & Thyroid Collar

Protective Devicescontinued Fast-speed film Image receptor-holding devices Exposure factor Proper technique

Monitoring Operator protection & monitoring Radiation monitoring Equipment monitoring

Pregnancy No need to alter radiographic procedures Infection Control Potential for cross-contamination

Wear personal protective equipment Use heat tolerant intraoral devices Transport and handle exposed film aseptically Consult manufacturer for

disinfection/sterilization advice Major References: Bird DL, Ronbinson DS. Modern Dental Assisting, El Sevier Saunders Publisher (2012) Jansen Howerton, Laura. Dental Radiation Health, Updated 1st Edition, Western Schools (2017)

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