Review: Write this down only if its new to you Chromosomes and Chromosome Number Characteristics such as hair color, eye color, etc., are called traits. The instructions for each trait are located on chromosomes, in the nucleus of cells. DNA is organized in segments called genes that control the
production of a protein. Each chromosome contains hundreds of genes. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Meiosis Chromosomes and Chromosome Number Homologous chromosomes Human cells have 46 chromosomes, or 23 pairs (one contributed by each parent).
The chromosomes that make up the pairs are called homologous chromosomes. Homologous chromosomes are the same length, same centromere position, and carry genes for the same traits. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Meiosis Chromosomes and Chromosome Number Haploid and diploid cells
To maintain the same number of chromosomes from generation to generation, organisms produce gametes sex cells with half the number of chromosomes. A cell with 23 chromosomes is called a haploid cell. A cell that contains 46 chromosomes is called a diploid cell. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Meiosis Meiosis I Meiosis is a type of cell
division that reduces the number of chromosomes in a cell and produces gametes. Involves two consecutive cell divisions, meiosis I and meiosis II Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Meiosis Meiosis I
Interphase Chromosomes replicate. Chromatin condenses. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Meiosis Meiosis I Prophase I Pairing of homologous
chromosomes occurs. Each chromosome consists of two sister chromatids. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Meiosis Meiosis I Prophase I As homologous chromosomes condense, they are bound together in a process called synapsis, which allows for
crossing over. Crossing over chromosomal segments are exchanged between a pair of homologous chromosomes. Crossing over produces exchange of genetic information. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Meiosis Meiosis I Metaphase I Chromosome centromeres attach to
spindle fibers. Homologous chromosomes line up as a pair at the equator. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Meiosis Meiosis I Anaphase I Homologous chromosomes separate
and move to opposite poles of the cell. The chromosome number is reduced from 2n to n when the homologous chromosomes separate. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Meiosis Meiosis I Telophase I
Chromosomes reach the cells opposite poles. Cytokinesis occurs. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Meiosis Meiosis II Prophase II A second set of phases begins as the spindle apparatus
forms and the chromosomes condense. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Meiosis Meiosis II Metaphase II Chromosomes are positioned at the equator.
Meiosis II involves a haploid number of chromosomes. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Meiosis Meiosis II Anaphase II Sister chromatids are pulled apart at the centromere by
spindle fibers and move toward the opposite poles of the cell. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Meiosis Meiosis II Telophase II The chromosomes reach the poles, and
the nuclear membrane and nuclei reform. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Meiosis Meiosis II Cytokinesis results in four haploid cells, each with n number of chromosomes. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education
Meiosis Make sure to record this: The Importance of Meiosis Mitosis consists of one cell division that produces identical cells. Meiosis consists of two cell divisions that produce haploid daughter cells that are not genetically identical. Meiosis results in genetic variation. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Meiosis
Mitosis and Meiosis Interactive Table FPO http://connected.mcgraw-hill.com/connected/permLink.do?ced_pl_id=G9J36LK55G3LBZPZMLX539F4J8 Add link t interactive table from page 275 (Table 1) here. Copyright McGraw-Hill Education Meiosis
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