NAPOLEONS FRANCE AND THE HAITIAN REVOLUTION The problems associated with the French Revolution gave Napoleon the perfect opportunity to rise to power. Napoleon was a brilliant military leader that won many battles and won him fame. Napoleon overthrew the weak Directory in a coup detat, or forced transfer of power, and installed a three man consulate to replace the Directory. The consulate voted Napoleon as the head of the Consul effectively making him a dictator. He pledged to uphold the
revolutionary reforms. France willingly gave up its freedom because Napoleon promised to bring peace, prosperity, and glory to France. They voted him Emperor Napoleon I through a plebiscite, or a ballot in which the voters say yes or no. NAPOLEONS RISE TO POWER Napoleon desired to build an empire for France by ruling Europe and extending power into the Americas. In America France already controlled Louisiana, Florida, and Haiti. Following the Haitian Revolution Napoleon gave up his dream of
expanding into the Americas and sold Louisiana and Florida to the United States. He started a series of wars that became known as the Napoleonic Wars. The wars lasted until 1815, nearly a decade. Great Britain remained Frances biggest enemy. Britain gathered allies, or nations that agreed to fight together, against France. Britains greatest advantage was their armada, but France was not a naval power. NAPOLEONIC WARS He waged economic warfare called the Continental System
by which he closed European ports to British goods Britain responded with its own blockade or shutting off ports to keep people or supplies from moving in or out of European ports Both sides seized neutral ships suspected of trading with the other Napoleons Continental System failed to bring Britain to its knees Trade restriction created a scarcity of goods in Europe sending prices soaring and intensified resentment against French power. While Napoleon had proved himself as a military leader, his Russian campaign led to his ultimate downfall. NAPOLEONS POLICIES Napoleon strengthened the centralized government in France by
executing his plan to establish order and efficiency throughout France. He encouraged new industry, built new roads and canals, and set up public schools. He made an agreement with the Pope called the Concordat that made peace between France and the Catholic Church. He recognized religious tolerance and kept the church under the control of the government. He established the Bank of France to provide economic stability and regulate the economy. He also created the Napoleonic Code that made laws uniform across the nation and eliminated many injustices. It included enlightenment principles such as equality for all citizens before the law. It provided religious tolerance for all.
He also established a network of high schools, universities, and technical schools to educate boys. THE FALL OF NAPOLEON Following Napoleons defeat in Russia the European powers allied themselves against France. The European powers marched all the way into Paris causing the French to surrender. One of the terms of the surrender was that Napoleon be removed from power and exiled to Elba. Napoleon was just waiting for his opportunity to return to power in France.
The allies restored the French monarchy recognizing Louis XVI as the rightful king of France and redrew the borders to what France had been in 1792. Many citizens, however, feared a return to the Old Order before the Revolution. Napoleon returned to France and was met with cheers and applause. This began Napoleons Hundred Days in which he ruled over France. The European allies began gathering their troops to defeat Napoleon yet again. Napoleon met the European allies at the Battle of Waterloo and were able to defeat the French. Napoleon was sent to Saint Helena in the South Atlantic,
much farther than Elba had been. He died six years later on the island. THE CONGRESS OF VIENNA The European allies called the Congress of Vienna to create a plan to restore order and stability to France. Their goal was to redraw the map of Europe. There were a few key players: Lord Castlereagh of Great Britain, Czar Alexander I of Russia, King Frederick William III of Prussia, and Prince Klemens von Metternich of Austria. Charles Maurice de Talleyrand attended on behalf of the French. Metternich wanted to restore the balance of power, make Europe peaceful again, restore the old monarchies, and compensate the Allies for their losses. The Congress of Vienna changed many of the borders to ensure that France would not regain that much power again. They surrounded France with stronger countries. They created the German Confederation that combined the German States and Prussia.
They also required France to pay a large sum of money to the European allies to compensate them for damages. THE REVOLUTIONS LEGACY Following the Revolution much of Europe was once again ruled by Monarchs. However, they would not retain the same power that they had had previous to the revolution common people retained their right to equal treatment under the law. Common people felt empowered against their rulers and would use their influence to their advantage. Enlightenment ideals and revolutionary thinking would lead to widespread revolutions from Latin America to Romania. By the early 1800s growing tensions among the
different ethnic and social groups of Latin American society, as well as reforms imposed by colonial authorities in Europe, were leading to demands for change. The Enlightenment as well as the American and French Revolutions were inspiring some in Latin America to seek independence. Saint Domingue, otherwise known as Haiti, was the first to break its ties with France.
Saint Domingue was known for its sugar plantations and was one of Frances richest possessions. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen gave rights to all free men to vote even mulattoes, or people of mixed African and European descent. Toussaint LOuverture led a group of mulattoes and slaves against the French settlers. The French army and the Toussaint struggled
for months before agreeing to an armistice. The French threw Toussaint in jail but the revolutionaries declared their independence from France. HAITIAN REVOLUTION
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