# Number Systems: Negative Integers and Floating Point

Department of Computer and Information Science, School of Science, IUPUI CSCI N305 Information Representation: Negative Integer Representation Dale Roberts Negative Numbers in Binary Four different representation schemes are used for negative numbers 1. Signed Magnitude Left most bit (LMB) is the sign bit : 0 positive (+) 1 negative (-) Remaining bits hold absolute magnitude Example: 210 0000 0010b Try, 1000 0100b = -410 -210 1000 0010b Q: 0000 0000 = ? 1000 0000 = ? Dale Roberts 1s Complement 2. Ones Complement Left most bit is the sign bit : 0 positive (+) 1 negative (-) The magnitude is Complemented Example: 210 0 000 0010b -210 1 111 1101b Exercise: try - 410 using 1s Complement

Q: 0000 0000 = ? 1111 1111 = ? Solution: 410 = 0 000 0100 -410 = 1 111 1011 b b Dale Roberts 2s Complement 3. 2s Complement Sign bit same as above Magnitude is Complemented first and a 1 is added to the Complemented digits Example: 210 0 1s Complement 1 + -210 1 000 0010b 111 1101b 1 111 1110b Exercise: try -710 using 2s Complement 710 0000 0111 b 1s Complement 1111 1000b + 1 -710 1111 1001b Dale Roberts 2s Complement Example: 7+(-3) [hint]: A B = A + (~B) +1 710 = 0000 0111b 310 = 0000 0011b

1s complement 1111 1100 b 2s complement 1111 1101 -310 b 1 1111 111 carry 7+(-3) 0000 0111 + 1111 1101 ignore 1 0000 0100 0000 0100 410 Dale Roberts Three Representation of Signed Integer Representation 0 0000 0 0001 0 0010 0 0011 0 0100 0 0101 0 0110 0 0111 0 1000 0 1001 0 1010 0 1011 0 1100 0 1101 0 1110 0 1111 1 0000 1 0001 1 0010 1 0011 1 0100 1 0101 1 0110 1 0111 1 1000 1 1001 1 1010 1 1011 1 1100 1 1101

1 1110 1 1111 Value Representation Signed Magnitude 1's Complement 2's Complement 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 -0 -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 -6 -7 -8 -9 -10 -11 -12 -13 -14 -15 0 1 2 3 4 5

6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 -15 -14 -13 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 -0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 -16 -15

-14 -13 -12 -11 -10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 Dale Roberts Negative Numbers in Binary (cont.) 4. Excess Representation For a given fixed number of bits the range is remapped such that roughly half the numbers are negative and half are positive. Example: (as left) Excess 8 notation for 4 bit numbers Binary value = 8 + excess-8 value MSB can be used as a sign bit, but If MSB =1, positive number If MSB =0, negative number Excess Representation is also called bias Numbers Binary Value 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Notation Excess 8 Value 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 5

6 7 Dale Roberts Fundamental Data Types With vs. without using sign bit For a 16 bit binary pattern: 2 byte unsigned (Default type is int) 0000 0000 0000 0000 ( 0D) 0000 0000 0000 0001 ( 1D ) 0000 0000 0000 0010 ( 2D ) . 0111 1111 1111 1111 ( 32767D 215 1) 1000 0000 0000 0000 ( 32768D 215) . 1111 1111 1111 1111 ( 216 1) 2 byte int 1000 0000 0000 0000 ( -32768D - 215 ) 1000 0000 0000 0001 ( -32767D - 215 +1) . 1111 1111 1111 1110 ( - 2D ) 1111 1111 1111 1111 ( - 1D ) 0000 0000 0000 0000 ( 0D ) 0000 0000 0000 0001 ( 1D ) 0000 0000 0000 0010 ( 2D ) . 0111 1111 1111 1111 ( 32767D 215 1) Dale Roberts Fundamental Data Types Four Data Types in C (assume 2s complement, byte machine) Data Type char Abbreviation Size (byte) Range

char 1 -128 ~ 127 unsigned char 1 0 ~ 255 2 or 4 -215 ~ 215-1 or -231 ~ 231-1 2 or 4 0 ~ 65535 or 0 ~ 232-1 int int unsigned int unsigned short int short 2 -32768 ~ 32767 unsigned short int unsigned short 2 0 ~ 65535 long int

long 4 -231 ~ 231-1 unsigned long int unsigned long 4 0 ~ 232-1 float 4 double 8 Note: 27 = 128, 215 =32768, 215 = 2147483648 Complex and double complex are not available Dale Roberts Acknowledgements These slides where originally prepared by Dr. Jeffrey Huang, updated by Dale Roberts. Dale Roberts

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