O Método Científico - INPE

O Método Científico - INPE

Gilberto Cmara National Institute for Space Research, Brazil CONTRIBUTIONS TO A THEORY OF GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION ENGINEERING Scientific colloquium in honour of Prof. Andre U. Frank Vienna, 2008 Why GI Engineering? Frank, A. and M. Raubal (2001). "GIS Education Today: From GI Science to GI Engineering." URISA JOURNAL 13(2): 5-10

Chemistry Chemical Eng. Physics Electrical Eng. Computer Computer Eng. Science GI Science GI GI Engineering:= The discipline of systematic Engineering construction of GIS and associated technology, drawing on scientific principles.

Scientists and Engineers Photo 51(Franklin, 1952) Scientists build in order to study Engineers study in order to build What set of concepts drove GIS 20? Map-based (cartography) User-centered (user interfaces) Toblerian spaces (regionalized data analysis) Object-based modelling and spatial reasoning What should GIS-20 Engineers have studied? Cartography

Photogram Spatial Analysis Spatial Databases Spatial Relations Semantics Ontology Geographic Information Engineering

Data Modelling Computer Languages User Interfaces GIS-20: Object-oriented modelling Egenhofer, M. and A. Frank (1992). "Object-Oriented Modeling for GIS." URISA Journal 4(2): 3-19. SPRINGs objectoriented data model (1995)

ARCGISs objectcentred data model (2002) Spatial database contains Coverage Geo-field Is-a Categorical contains Geo-object

Cadastral Is-a Numerical GIS-20: Topological Spatial Reasoning Egenhofer, M. and R. Franzosa (1991). "PointSet Topological Spatial Relations." IJGIS 5(2): 161-174 OGCs 9-intersection dimension-extended Open source implementations (GEOS) GIS-20: User interfaces Jackson, J. (1990) Visualization of metaphors for interaction

with GIS. M.S. thesis, University of Maine. Geographers desktop (1992) ArcView (1995) GIS -20: Region-based spatial analysis Goodchild, Anselin, Applebaum, and Harthorn. 2000. Toward Spatially Integrated Social Science. Int Regional Science Review 23 (2):139-159. GeoDA ArcGIS Geostatistical analyst (1995)

mobile devices augmented reality GIS21 Data-centered, mobile-enabled, contributionbased, field-based modelling sensor networks ubiquitous images and Global Change: How is the Earths environment changing, and what are the consequences for human Global Change civilization? Where are changes taking place?

How much change is happening? Who is being impacted by the change? source: ARGOS Sensor Webs Tracking Monitoring Positions collected over a fixed period of time Data from remote stations, fixed or

What should GIS-21 Engineers study? Spatial Cognition Spatiotemporal models Spatial Databases Spatial Reasoning Semantics Ontology

Geographic Information Engineering Network theory Computer Languages Info Visualiz. GIE-21: Functional Programming Frank, A. (1997). Higher order functions necessary for spatial theory development. In: Auto-Carto 13.

Frank, A. (1999). One Step up the Abstraction Ladder: Combining Algebras From Functional Pieces to a Whole. COSIT 99 class Coverage cv where evaluate :: cv a b a Maybe b domain :: cv a b [a] a] num :: cv a b Int values :: cv a b [a] b] eospatial data processing is a collection of types and function nctional programming allows rigorous development of GIS GIS-21: Multiscale modelling snap: T (S1 V) {snap1(t1),., snapn(tn)}

space-based snapshots hist : S2 (TV) the history of a location in space Data modelling of human-environment issues poses unresolved problems state : (S x T) V ) the previous state of the world (or a theory about) {snap1(t1),...., snapn(tn)} a set of space-based snapshots theory_space : (S V ) a theory about the process that describe space {hist1(s1),...., histn(sn)}

a set of time series for fixed locations theory_time : (T V ) a theory about the time evolution state : (S x T) V ) (NEW) a new guess about the state of the world GIS-21: Spatio-temporal modelling A dynamical spatial model is a computational representation of a real-world process where a location on the earths surface changes in response to variations on external and internal dynamics on the landscape (Peter Burrough) f (It) f (It+1) F

f (It+2) F f ( It+n ) .. Dynamic Spatial Models need higher-order functions! GIS-21: Spatio-Temporal modelling with Agents in Cell Spaces Cell Spaces Representation

Cell Spaces Generalized Proximity Matriz GPM Hybrid Automata model Nested scales TerraME: Based on functional programming

concepts (second-order functions) to develop dynamical GIE-21: Spatial Cognition Frank, A. U. (1996). "Qualitative Spatial Reasoning: Cardinal Directions as an Example." IJGIS 10(3): 269-290. Mark, D. and A. Frank (1991). Cognitive and Linguistic Aspects of Geographic Space. Dordrecht, Kluwer. Collaborative GIS (Virtual Rome) Relative location in microspaces source: A. Camara (Ydreams)

Technology-enabled spatial cognition: revisit the metaphors, obtain quantitative results, design better GIE-21: Network Theory Bus traffic volume in So Paulo Innovation network in Silicon Valley Barabasi, A.-L. and Albert, R., Emergence of scaling in random networks, Science 286, 509512 (1999). Newman, M. E. J., Barabasi, A.-L., and Watts, D. J., The Structure and Dynamics of Networks, Princeton University Press, Princeton (2003). GIE-21: Network-based analysis

Emergent area Consolidated area Modelling beef chains in Amazonia GIS-21: Human-enviroment interactions Frank, A. U. (2001). "Tiers of ontology and consistency constraints in GIS." IJGIS15(7): 667-678. Nature: Physical equations Describe processes

Society: Decisions on how to Use Earths resources Should we teach GIEngineering for the 21st century? Spatial Cognition Spatiotemporal models Spatial Databases Spatial Reasoning

Semantics Ontology Geographic Information Engineering Network theory Computer Languages Info Visualiz.

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