PC Support & Repair

PC Support & Repair

PC SUPPORT & REPAIR Chapter 12 Security Objectives After completing this chapter, you will meet these objectives: o o

o o Explain why security is important. Describe security threats. Identify security procedures. Identify common preventive maintenance techniques for security. o Troubleshoot security.

SECURITY THREATS 12.1 Malware Any software to create malicious acts o Adware, spyware, grayware, viruses, worms, Trojan horses, rootkits Usually installed without user

knowledge Open extra windows, changes computers config, redirect browser, collect info, etc. Type of Malware: VIRUS Virus o Transferred through email, flash drives, file transfers, IM o When file is access, virus executes

Type of Malware: TROJAN HORSE Trojan Horse o Looks ok but has malicious code o Often in free online games o Can open a hole in software for an attack No replication & not attached to a file You end up running the program

Can open a hole in software for an attack o Your PC becomes a zombie (Bot or Botnet) o Used for spamming, DDoS attack, etc. SOLUTION: o Install anti-malware program Type of Malware: WORMS Self-replicating program

Duplicates across network w/out you knowing o Doesnt need to attach to program Ties up network bandwidth & prevent users from doing normal stuff Gets in from unpactched software SOLUTION: o Keep software up to date o Install anti-malware software

Type of Malware: ADWARE Displays ads on computer o Usually in pop ups o Pops up faster than you can close Comes in software you download Type of Malware:

SPYWARE Software installed w/ out you knowing Intercepts & collects data; gets passwords Gathers info about you & sends it to someone else w/out your consent o Gather browsing data

o Steal personal or financial info Type of Malware: RANSOMWARE Similar to adware Denies access to computer Demands a paid ransom to get PC control back

Type of Malware: ROOTKITS Installed in the boot sector o BIOS boots system from rootkit o Thinks rootkit is the OS o Rootkit runs in RAM Gains administrator-level access to computer Very difficult to detect o Almost invisible to anti-malware software

o Has the rights to control and modify security programs SOLUTION: o Secure boot feature in newer Windows o May have to reinstall OS to get rid of it Solution to Malware To detect, disable, and remove malware before it infects a computer, always use antivirus software, antispyware, and adware

removal tools These software programs become outdated quickly o It is the responsibility of the technician to apply the most recent updates, patches, and virus definitions as part of a regular maintenance schedule o Many organizations establish a written security policy stating that employees are not permitted to install any software that is not provided by the

company. Activity Review- 5Q What type of threat installs software on your PC to monitor your activity? o Spyware What is the most difficult threat to protect against

because it installs in the boot sector? o Rootkit What places ads on the desktop without you doing anything? o Adware Name two types of malware. o Adware, spyware, virus, worm, Trojan, rootkit

What program is self-replicating? o Worm Review- 4Q Which attack comes by email and directs you to a web page to enter personal info? o Phishing Which software is installed on your computer w/out your knowing when you download a

program and it displays product windows on the screen? o Adware What ties up the networks bandwidth? o Worm How do you make sure your AV software can protect you from the latest viruses? o Download the latest virus updates

Threat: PHISHING Email, phone, or text to get personal or financial information o Can also be used to persuade users to unknowingly install malware on their computers Looks legit o Bank o Ask to verify password or account to prevent

something bad from happening o Through link to real-looking web page Spear phishing o When a phishing attack is targeted at a specific individual or organization Threat: SPAM Unsolicited junk mail Can be for ads or include harmful links or

malware o Goal is to get sensitive info Sent out by compromised PCs to others Reduced by ISP filter, antivirus software, email programs that filter it Watch for email with: o o o

o No subject line Misspelled words & strange punctuation Long, cryptic hyperlinks Request to open an attachment Threat: (DoS) DENIAL OF SERVICE ATTACK Overload a system so it cant do its

normal work o Crash or flood server Regular Example: o You go to bank to cash a check o Bank is filled with people who dont even have a bank account o They are just there to disrupt normal service

Threat: (DDOS) DISTRIBUTED DENIAL OF SERVICE ATTACK Uses infected zombie or botnet computers to launch attacks Zombies are all over the place; cant trace Threat: SYN FLOOD A SYN request initializes TCP communication

o Ties up the server bc it replies to nothing o Others are denied service Threat: SPOOFING Computer pretends to be a trusted computer to gain access to resources IP spoofing- hiding the source IP MAC spoofing- mainly used in wireless networks to avoid MAC filtering

Threat: MAN-IN-THE-MIDDLE ATTACK Intercepting communications between computers to steal information traveling through the network Could also be used to manipulate messages and relay false information between hosts Threat: REPLAY ATTACK

Hacker sniffs packets to get authentication info Then hacker uses info to connect to server Threat: DNS POISONING DNS records are changed to point to imposter server o User attempts to access a legitimate site, but traffic is diverted to an imposter site

o Imposter site used to capture confidential information, such as usernames and passwords Threat: ZERO DAY ATTACK A hole in software that is unknown to the vendor o Security hole is then exploited by hackers before the vendor becomes aware and

hurries to fix it THREAT: SOCIAL ENGINEERING An attempt to fraudulently get sensitive info from users o Usernames, passwords, credit card #, account #, ss #, etc. o They pretend to be a trustworthy person

Social Engineering Techniques Pretexting o Pretends to need personal info to confirm identity of recipient Phishing Spear Phishing o Targeted phishing attack

Tailgating o Following an authorized person into secure area Attack! Attack again! Whats your password?

Preventing Social Engineering Attacks The end user is the weak link Teach users: o Never give out your login credentials o Never post credential information in your work area o Lock your computer when you leave your desk o Implement an access or entry control roster listing who is permitted in

o Do not let anyone follow you through a door that requires an access card o Always ask for the ID of unknown persons o Restrict access to visitors; Escort all visitors o Forward those types of calls to help desk (theyll probably hang up) o Check web links for https, web address o Privacy filter to prevent shoulder surfers o Shred documents to prevent dumpster diving

Activity- NOT ALL ARE USED Review- 4Q What kind of attack uses zombie computers to attack another system? o DDoS How do DoS and DDoS attack a server? o They overload it so the server cannot do its normal

functions; possibly crashes Which attack tricks you into entering your personal info through email and a spoofed web site? o Phishing What attack gets the info before it gets to its destination? o Man-in-the-middle

Review- 3Q A visitor at your work looks over your shoulder & sees your password. They then go home & use it to access the network. What is this called? o Social engineering What is the best way to prevent social eng.? o Train staff

What kind of attack is when a hole in software is found and is taken advantage of before it gets patched? o Zero day attack SECURITY PROCEDURES 12.2

Create a Security Policy Local Windows Security Policy In Active Directory networks, Windows policies are set on server & are active when user logs in On stand-alone computers: o Control Panel > Administrative Tools > Local Security Policy

Username & Password Change defaults Use a standard naming convention for users o EX: jsmith Dont use other users login info BIOS password Local PC password

Network password Local Windows Password Create a Windows password Lock PC when not around it or set screen saver with login Activity TestOut Lab 12.5.4 Configure BIOS/UEFI

Security TestOut Lab 12.7.5 Enforce Password Settings Web Security Browser settings: ActiveX Filtering Pop-up Blocker SmartScreen Filter o Detects phishing & malicious items on

websites InPrivate Browsing o Like Chromes incognito mode Protect Data Software Firewall o Allows/denies traffic to & from network

Smart Card o Plastic card with chip o Stores information Biometrics o Fingerprint, eye, facial, etc. Key fob

Data Backups Full weekly or monthly o Then frequent partial Should be stored offsite Protect backup with password Check to make sure backup is good

File and Folder Permissions Right-click the file or folder and select Properties > Security > Edit Level Full Modify Read and Execute Read

Write Description Can do everything Change & delete but NOT create new Can see contents & run Can see & open Can create & make changes

File & Folder EncryptionEFS EFS (Encrypting File System) in Windows o Can encrypt files or folders o Can only be opened by the user who encrypted them or by an administrator o Right-click on file/folder, Properties, Advanced, Encrypt Data Encryption- BitLocker in

Windows Used to encrypt entire hard drive o 1st- initialize TPM in BIOS o 2nd- turn on BitLocker in Control Panel Needs a TPM (Trusted Platform Module) on the motherboard to store the encrypted keys OR a flash drive to store the keys

Hardware Destruction Data wiping o Used to remove sensitive data Formatting is not enough o Overwrites data multiple times Hard drive destruction

o Shatter platters with hammer o Shred CDs & floppies Hard drive recycling (no sensitive data) o Format & reuse or donate Activity

Activity TestOut Lab 12.3.6 Require a Screen Saver Password TestOut Lab 12.8.4 Encrypt Files TestOut Lab 12.10.4 Configure the Windows Firewall Review- 3Q A fingerprint reader is what kind of security?

o Biometrics Where should backups be stored? o Off-site The IRS is replacing their computers. What should you do to the old hard drives to protect any sensitive data before you recycle the PCs? o Destroy with a hammer or degausser

SECURITY TECHNIQUES 12.2 Protection Antivirus Software o An antivirus program runs automatically in background & monitors for problems o When virus is detected, user is warned & program attempts to

quarantine or delete virus Spyware protection o Antispyware programs scan for keyloggers, which capture your keystrokes, and other malware so that it can be removed Adware protection o Anti-adware looks for programs that display ads on computer Phishing protection

o Antiphishing programs block the IP addresses of known phishing websites and warn you about suspicious websites Removing a Virus Identify whats happening Disconnect from the network Let IT know Boot to Safe Mode & scan (or install AV) o May need Safe Mode with Networking o Use other tools

Delete system restore files after cleaned Customer in a hurry? o Remove HD & connect to external dock o Copy data they need to another PC Signature File Updates Get your updates for your AV software Auto update

Wireless Security Disable SSID (Service Set Identifier) o Change & disable the broadcast MAC address filter o Only listed MAC addresses allowed/prevented

Encrypt & authenticate data o WEP (weak) o WPA (better) o WPA2 (best) Turn WPS off (easy brute force attack) Review- 4Q To secure your wireless network you should

disable this & enable this o Disable the SSID broadcast o Enable WPA2 encryption T or F. Passwords should be text only. T or F. You should set a password lockout rule. What hardware/software security method on the motherboard supports storing encryption keys, digital certificates, and passwords? o TPM

Review- 3Q What was the 1st wireless encryption, which is also the weakest? o WEP What security method has a chip on a card? o Smart Card

What wireless security method will ensure ONLY your computers are accessing the network? o MAC address filtering HARDWARE FIREWALLS 12.2 Hardware Firewall

Configurations Integrated into SOHO routers Packet filtering o Every packet inspected o Must match rule for allow or deny o Based on protocols/ports in/out SPI (Stateful Packet Inspection) o Packets must be part of a known connection

Proxy Server o Inspects all packets against rules DMZ Demilitarized Zone o If you have a server that needs to be accessed from the outside world, place it in a zone that is not in your network Port Forwarding

Specific ports must be opened so that certain applications can communicate with devices on different networks o Port forwarding is a rule-based method of directing traffic to a certain device in the network o Used in gaming or security cameras Activity Packet Tracer Lab Configure

Wireless Security Protecting Equipment Physical o o o o o o

Cable locks Locked rooms Security cages Alarms Web cams RFID tags Access o Multifactor authentication

o Disable AutoRun & AutoPlay PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE FOR SECURITY 12.3 Common Preventive Maintenance Techniques Download OS service packs & patches

Make regular data backups Enable Windows Firewall & manually add ports Maintain accounts o Group users; disable employee accounts when they leave; login times, etc. COMMON PROBLEMS FOR SECURITY

12.4 Common Problems PC SUPPORT & REPAIR Chapter 12 Security

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