Are you left- or right-brained? Often one hemisphere

Are you left- or right-brained? Often one hemisphere

Are you left- or right-brained? Often one hemisphere is dominant in an individual. Think about the kinds of activities you do do they match the left or right hemisphere? Look at the image.

If the dancer is spinning clockwise then you might be right-hemisphere dominant. If the dancer is spinning anticlockwise then you might be lefthemisphere

dominant. Look closely does she change direction? What do you think this means? Some background Our brain is divided into two halves or .. Each half is associated with different abilities. Corpus Callosum

Left hemisphere Right hemisphere The brain and the Corpus Callosum The Corpus Callosum The Corpus Callosum is responsible for communicating messages from the left to the right hemisphere and vice versa. The CC is made up of a think bundle of

nerve fibres called commissural fibres. These are attached to both the R and L hemisphere. https:// www.youtube.com/watch?v=VHgClWAPbBY Lateralisation of function The two hemispheres have different functions from each other. Right and Left hemispheres and the Right and Left sides of the body Which side

of the brain controls the left side of the body? Which side of the brain controls the right side of the body? The Biological Area: Sperry

The Biological Area: Sperry 1. Put your hand on your head. Which hand did you use? Right or left The Biological Area: Sperry 2. Cross your hands over your chest. Which hand is on top?

Right or left The Biological Area: Sperry 3. Cross your legs. Which leg is on top? Right or left The Biological Area: Sperry 4. Look at this and close one

eye. Which eye is still open? Right or left The Biological Area: Sperry 5. I'd make a good detective. Yes / No The Biological Area: Sperry 6. If I forgot someone's

name, I'd go through the alphabet until I remembered it Yes / No The Biological Area: Sperry 7. I frequently let my emotions guide me. Yes / No The Biological Area: Sperry

8. In a debate, I am objective and look at the facts before forming an opinion. Yes / No The Biological Area: Sperry 9. When somebody asks me a question, I turn my head to the Left or Right

The Biological Area: Sperry 10. People tell me I am always late getting places. Yes / No https:// www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=zx53Zj7EKQE https://

www.youtube.co m/watch?v=ZML zP1VCANo Scoring Give yourself one point for each time you answered "A" for questions: 1, 2, 3, 7, 8, 9, 13, 14, 15, 19, 20, 21. Give yourself one point for each time you answered "B" for questions: 4 ,5, 6, 10, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18. Add all points. Totals imply: 0-4: strong left brain 5-8: moderate left brain 9-13: middle brain

14-16: moderate right brain 17-21: strong right brain Lateralisation of Function LEFT BRAIN FUNCTIONS uses logic detail oriented facts rule words and language present and past math and science can comprehend knowing

acknowledges order/pattern perception knows object name reality based forms strategies practical safe RIGHT BRAIN FUNCTIONS uses feeling "big picture" oriented imagination rules symbols and images

present and future philosophy & religion can "get it" (i.e. meaning) believing appreciates spatial perception knows object function fantasy based presents possibilities impetuous risk taking Sperry (1968) Split brain study

SPERRY Prep for Wed 6/3/19 Sperry short answer questions Aim To understand the background to Sperrys study that each brain hemisphere plays a different role Learning objectives Must - To identify the general

roles the left and right hemispheres each play Should - To describe the unusual ability and inability of split-brain patients Could - To explain how the split-brain patients came to this point Key Terms: note down as many key terms relevant to Sperrys study and the Biological Area.

Key Terms Hemisphere (right and left) Corpus callosum Visual field (right and left) Contra-lateral control Lateralisation of function Natural experiment Split brain surgery

Cross-wiring Tactile task Visual task Epilepsy Brain EEG Hemispheric disconnection and unity in conscious awareness https:// www.youtube.c om/watch?v=aC v4K5aStdU

https:// www.youtube.c om/watch?v=Kq y4XVcCf0w SPERRY (1968) What is a visual field? If you look straightforward everything to the left of your nose is

the left visual field and everything to the right is your right visual field. Left Visual Field Right Visual Field

Visual fields a little more detail HOWEVER! Its more complex than right eye -> left hemisphere and left eye > left hemisphere. Information from both eyes goes to both hemispheres. Left visual field Right visual field

Left visual field Left side Right side Left hemisphere Right hemisphere

(Language) (drawing) Left Visual Field Right Visual Field

Humans are cross-wired contralateral control Contralateral Control Left side Right side Left

hemisphere Right hemisphere (Language) (drawing) Left Visual Field

Right Visual Field Draw a line from the VFs and body to the correct hemisphere The Split Brain Studies - Sperry (1968) THREE Questions... What happens when the two halves of the brain are disconnected?

Do the hemispheres perform different functions? Does each hemisphere have its own memories, perceptions and concepts? Brain Functions The supposition The left half of the brain is specialised for language linguistic expression both symbolic and logical The right half of the brain is

specialised for perception visuospatial and artistic Brain Functions Can this be supported by evidence? Sperrys experiment was A NATURAL EXPERIMENT 11 participants Sperrys Ps were epileptics who could not be treated with drugs

What do we know about epilepsy? Symptoms can range from; Brief loss of consciousness severely thrashing the legs and arms uncontrollably (Grand Mal). What is the cause? Abnormal firing of electrical impulses throughout the brain which interrupts normal brain patterns. During a seizure, electrical impulses pass

from 1 hemisphere to the other. How might we be able to stop this? Cut the Corpus Callosum This procedure is known as a Split Brain Surgery (commisurotomy) It is carried out as a last resort when medication has failed. Show what you know Commisurotomy Contra-lateral

control Corpus callosum Epilepsy How many words can you make from these 2 words? Right Hemisphere 20 words = good 30 words = great 40 words = fabulous

Sperrys apparatus - Tachistoscope Visual apparatus and procedure Participants had one eye covered and asked to stare at a point (fixation point) on a projector screen. Information (picture/word/symbol) was flashed to either the left visual field (LVF) or right visual field (RVF) for 1/10th second.

CONTROLS? Tactile apparatus and procedure Below the screen was a gap so participants could be handed objects or reach into a grab bag and touch objects but could not see the objects or his hands.

CONTROLS? Tachistoscope - Controls The fixation point. Image flashed for 0.1 seconds. Always had one eye covered. Standard pictures/words/symbols shown to each participant. Participants cant see their hands. Same experimenter used.

Procedure So the participants completed various visual and tactile tasks (with the experimenters attempting to see how the two hemispheres functioned). Participants remained in silence during trials unless asked question by experimenter.

WHY? Research Methodology Independent Variable? Dependent Variable? Methodology? Hemisphere disconnection (or not). Performance on visual (sight) and tactile (touch) tasks.

Quasi-experiment (no control over IV) and case studies. Results What happened? When an object is displayed on one half of the screen (i.e. the left) and then in the other the P has no recollection of seeing it before Is this evidence for TWO SEPARATE MEMORIES? Results

Speech and writing When an object is displayed in the right visual field (thus processed in the left hemisphere) Ps can describe it in speech and writing Results Speech and writing When an object is displayed in the LVF (thus processed in the right hemisphere)

Ps insist they have not seen anything BUT if asked to use the LEFT HAND to point to a matching object on the table can do so, while STILL insisting nothing was seen Results: COMPOSITE words TWO different objects displayed e.g. RING and KEY Ps asked to draw what they see with their left hand DREW what was on the LEFT half of

the screen (RING) BUT said they had drawn what was on the RIGHT half of the screen (KEY) How many COMPOSITE words can you think of? 20 words = good 30 words = great 40 words = fabulous Results: Tactile Tests

OBJECTS placed in RIGHT HAND for IDENTIFICATION BY TOUCH Ps described the object in speech and writing OBJECTS placed in LEFT HAND for IDENTIFICATION BY TOUCH Ps made wild guesses - seemed unaware of object in their hand Results: Tactile Tests Two different objects placed in each hand - then hidden for

retrieval in pile of items Each hand searches for its own object but ...If the left hand picks up the object which the right hand is looking for, the object is rejected but the other hand continues to search!!! The split brain procedure An APPLE flashed LEFT side of the screen and participant asked to locate the item on the screen with his RIGHT hand If the P uses his RIGHT HAND to find the displayed item (apple) on the table he can

name each object he picks up but cannot say what his RIGHT HAND is looking for Because the item in the LEFT VISUAL FIELD is processed in the RIGHT HEMISPHERE The split brain procedure: Match A PEAR is projected on the LEFT screen and is processed in the RIGHT hemisphere The left hand grabs the pear (matched) because the

left hand is managed by the right brain - but the P cannot report what is held! The split brain procedure: Mismatch A PEAR is projected on the LEFT screen and is processed in the RIGHT hemisphere The RIGHT hand searches and can name objects as found (RIGHT HAND IN LEFT HEMISPHERE) but cannot find the pear, because it does not

know what HAND is looking for !!! The split brain procedure: Conclusion It seems that one half of the brain does not know what the other half is doing The Biological Approach: Sperry Consolidate your knowledge during the video, using the cloze passage pages 14-15 Pages

14-15 Role of right and left hemisphere Write LEFT on one side of your board and RIGHT on the other. Show the correct side in response to the following questions . LEFT RIGHT Language is

processed in which hemisphere? LEFT The right visual field is controlled by which hemisphere? LEFT Information from the left hand is sent to which hemisphere for processing? RIGHT

If a patient had a seizure in their left hemisphere, which side of the body might be in danger of paralysis? RIGHT Information from the right hand is sent to which hemisphere for processing? LEFT

Information from the left visual field is controlled by which hemisphere?RIGHT Left handed people tend to be which hemisphere dominant? RIGHT

If a nude pin up was presented to the Ps on one specific visual field, they would blush but couldnt say why. Which visual field was it presented to? LEFT The split brain procedure: Summary The LEFT hemisphere (in right handed people) is specialised for speech and writing and for the

organisation of language It can communicate the visual experiences of the RIGHT VISUAL FIELD and about the experiences of the RIGHT half of the body The split brain procedure: Summary The RIGHT hemisphere is MUTE and cannot speak or write (aphasic and agraphic) but can show NON VERBALLY that mental processes, centred around the LEFT VISUAL FIELD and the LEFT half

of the BODY, are present Sperry's study is a _________/natural ___________________ because the _____________________ variable having a split brain or not was not directly _____________________ by the _____________________. Ps with splitbrains had already _________________ hemisphere _______________________ to reduce severe _______________. The _________________ variable was the Ps ability to _____________ a variety of visual and _____________ tests. Some

say it is a collection of _______ studies, because so many _________ were made on just 11 Ps. Sperry's study is a (quasi)/natural (experiment) because the (independent) variable having a split brain or not was not directly (manipulated) by the (researchers). Ps with split-brains had already (undergone) hemisphere (deconnection) to reduce severe (epilepsy). The (dependent) variable

was the Ps ability to (perform) a variety of visual and (tactile) tests. Some say it is a collection of (case) studies, because so many (tests) were made on just 11 Ps. Case Deconnection Dependent Epilepsy Experiment Independent Manipulated Perform

Quasi Researchers Tactile Tests Undergone Conclusions Theres evidence for lateralisation of brain function. Language is associated with the left hemisphere. Emotion associated with the right. Split brain patients dont usually have

problems in daily life because they can see stimuli for more than 1/10th of a second. https:// create.kahoot.it/details/sperry/16c724b1-c63a-412 Sperrys Results: Tactile tasks Without looking, participants picked up an object with their right hand. Hemisphere used: Participants were then asked to say out loud what they were holding. Could participants do this? Why/Why not? Without looking, participants picked up an object

with their left hand. Hemisphere used: Participants were then asked to say out loud what they were holding. Could participants do this? Why/Why not? https:// create.kahoot.it/details/sperry/16c724b1-c63a-412 Sperrys Results: Tactile tasks Without looking, participants picked up an object with their right hand. Hemisphere used: LEFT Participants were then asked to say out loud what they were holding. Could participants do this? YES Why/Why not?

LH is in control of language Without looking, participants picked up an object with their left hand. Hemisphere used: RIGHT Participants were then asked to say out loud what they were holding. Could participants do this? NO Why/Why not? RH is mute https://

create.kahoot.it/details/sperry/16c724b1-c63a-412 Sperrys Results: Visual tasks Participants were flashed a stimulus to one of their visual fields. Which visual field was the ? stimulus presented to? Which hemisphere would have seen the stimulus? Participants were then asked to identify what they saw. Would participants have been able to do this? Why/Why not? If not, what could they do?

https:// create.kahoot.it/details/sperry/16c724b1-c63a-412 Sperrys Results: Visual tasks Participants were flashed a stimulus to one of their visual fields. Which visual field was the ? stimulus presented to? RVF Which hemisphere would have seen the stimulus? LH Participants were then asked to identify what they saw. Would participants have been able to do this? YES

Why/Why not? LH is in control of language If not, what could they do? They could do this. https:// create.kahoot.it/details/sperry/16c724b1-c63a-412 Sperrys Results: Visual tasks $ Participants were flashed a stimulus to one of their visual fields.Which visual field was the $ stimulus presented to?

Which hemisphere would have seen the stimulus? Participants were then asked to identify what they saw. Would participants have been able to do this? Why/Why not? If not, what could they do? https:// create.kahoot.it/details/sperry/16c724b1-c63a-412 Sperrys Results: Visual tasks $ Participants were flashed a stimulus to one of

their visual fields.Which visual field was the $ stimulus presented to? LVF Which hemisphere would have seen the stimulus? RH Participants were then asked to identify what they saw. Would participants have been able to do this? NO Why/Why not? RH is mute. If not, what could they do? DRAW it with their https://

left hand create.kahoot.it/details/sperry/16c724b1-c63a-412 Sperrys Results: Composite Words Which visual field was each word presented to? KEY = CASE = Which hemisphere was each word presented to? KEY = CASE = Would the participant have been able to identify this stimulus verbally?

KEY = CASE = If not, what could the participant do? KEY = CASE = Sperrys Results: Composite Words Which visual field was each word presented to? KEY = LVF CASE = RVF Which hemisphere was each word presented to? KEY = RH

CASE = LH Would the participant have been able to identify this stimulus verbally? KEY = NO CASE = YES If not, what could the participant do? KEY = NO, but could DRAW it with their left hand CASE = YES can identify it verbally Timed Test you can use your notes and folders

Starter Task Determinism Free will Holism Nature Nurture Psychology as a science Reductionism Usefulness Evaluation of Sperry: Usefulness (DRUGV)

The research is useful for future research as it is one of the first studies to quantify the specific resources of the silent side of the brain. With this information future research can identify in more detail how the brains resources are used Evaluation of Sperry: Usefulness IS Point

Sperrys study is useful as it IS NOT Point Because Explanation Because Explanation

In Sperrys study Context Conclusion Sperrys study IS NOT useful In Sperrys study Context This is helpful because it helps to develop our

understanding of the brain. Conclusion This is unhelpful because research taken should develop our knowledge Evaluation of Sperry: Validity Validity (measurement): + The study was highly controlled as the procedure was identical for

each participant - As the method was a quasi it does not allow for complete control of the extraneous variables (participant variables) Evaluation of Sperry: Ecological Validity Ecological Validity (realism): + The sample was representative of the abnormal population (CC severed)

- The task had little mundane realism as you do not see things for 0.1 seconds at a time. Evaluation of Sperry: Validity IS IS NOT Sperrys study is valid as it Point

Sperrys study IS NOT valid Point Because Explanation Because Explanation In Sperrys study Context Conclusion

In Sperrys study Context This is helpful because we want research to be true / valid to give us better insight. Conclusion This is unhelpful because if it is not true / valid there is no point in using the research

Evaluation of Sperry: Sample and Population + Sample had 10 man and 1 woman in it and was a large proportion of the abnormal population - The sample did not include a control group for objective comparison to normal behaviour - Nowadays practically no-one has

their corpus callosum cut Evaluation of Sperry: Sample Advantage Point Explanation Context Conclusion

It is an advantage of Sperrys sample was Because In Sperrys study This is helpful because Weakness Point

Explanation Context Conclusion It is a disadvantage of Sperrys sample was Because In Sperrys study

This is unhelpful because Evaluation of Sperry: Data Data: + Large amounts of quantitative data allows for easy summary of results - Lack of qualitative data does not allow for full explanation of what is occurring; no description

Evaluation of Sperry: Quantitative Data Advantage Point Collecting quantitative data is an advantage because Weakness Point

Because Explanation Because Explanation In Sperrys study Context In Sperrys study Context This is helpful because

Conclusion Collecting quantitative data is a disadvantage because Conclusion This is unhelpful because Evaluation of Sperry: Ethics

Ethics: + Confidentiality - Protection from psychological harm as they could be stressed and embarrassed Evaluation of Sperry: Ethics Ethical Point

Sperrys study was ethical because it ensured confidentiality Not Ethical Point Because Explanation Because Explanation

In Sperrys study Context In Sperrys study Context This is helpful because Conclusion Sperrys study was not ethical because the Ps were not protected from harm

This is unhelpful because Conclusion Evaluation of Sperry: Nature / Nurture Debate A Debate it adds to: Nature-nurture as it suggests that behaviour can be completely determined by biology Evaluation of Sperry: Nature / Nurture Debate

Advantage Point It is an advantage to take the nature side of the nature nurture debate because Weakness Point Because Explanation

Because Explanation In Sperrys study Context In Sperrys study Context This is helpful because Conclusion

It is a disadvantage to take the nature side of the nature nurture debate because This is unhelpful because Conclusion Links to debates: Free Will / Determinism Sperrys study suggests that our biology determines our behaviour, which is helpful as it does

not blame them for abnormality. But unhelpful as they may not train themselves to overcome this. Evaluation of Sperry: Free Will / Determinism Debate Advantage Point It is an advantage to take the determinism side of the

FW/D debate because Weakness Point Because Explanation Because Explanation In Sperrys study Context

In Sperrys study Context This is helpful because Conclusion It is a disadvantage to take the determinism side of the FW/D debate because Conclusion

This is unhelpful because Links to debates: Psychology as a science This study scientifically tested the participants abilities by using controlled conditions which can be replicated. Is it possible to falsify the findings that Sperry collected through further testing?

Because there are no more split brain patients, it is not possible to replicate fully. Evaluation of Sperry: Psychology as a Science IS Point Sperrys study would suggest that Psychology IS a science

IS NOT Point Because Explanation Because Explanation In Sperrys study Context Conclusion

Sperrys study would suggest that Psychology IS NOT a science In Sperrys study Context This is helpful because it gives the subject credibility. Conclusion

This is unhelpful because it reduces the subjects credibility Links to areas/perspectives: Biological area because biological area because it is investigating the function of the corpus callosum, as well as the roles of each hemisphere of the brain. Because it is only taking into account the brain as an explanation of behaviour, it does not really allow its

findings to fit into other psychological areas. Links to the key theme: Regions of the Brain This study gives some insight into the function of the corpus callosum. It does this by giving the participants controlled tasks and monitoring what participants could and could not do. It helps us see how different REGIONS of the brain have different functions.

Evaluating Sperry On lined paper / computer, you are going to answer 3 questions Choose one question from Q1-3 Choose one question from Q4-5 Choose one question from Q6-8 Page

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