OSEP Disclaimer 2018 OSEP Project Directors Conference DISCLAIMER: The contents of this presentation were developed by the presenters for the 2018 Project Directors Conference. However, these contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government.
(Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474) The Role of Coaching for Improving Education Panel Chair: Jennifer Coffey, PhD OSEP Panel: Jennifer Pierce, PhD American Institute of Research Kim St. Martin, PhD Michigan (MIBLSI) Rob Horner, PhD University of Oregon Assumptions
Coaching is being encouraged and used at an increasing rate across education, training and technical assistance efforts. Research supports the value of coaching both for improving initial adoption and sustained use of effective practices. Major challenges remain, however, about how to select, train, organize and support coaching with practical efficiency. 3
Objectives Define coaching and distinguish from training Define core functions of coaching Provide examples of how to organize effective coaching (school, district, region, state) Describe strategies for selecting, training, and supporting people who do coaching 4
Discussion 1.0 What research, demonstrations and guidance do we need to better use coaching? 5 Many Visions / Definitions of Coaching
6 Empirical Support for Coaching There have been numerous studies conducted in educational settings related to the effects of coaching on valued outcomes, including: Teacher fidelity of implementation (e.g., Kretlow, Cooke, & Wood, 2012; Kretlow, Wood, & Cooke, 2009), Teacher use of evidence-based academic practices (e.g., Jager,
Empirical Support for Coaching (cont.) Coaching has been advocated as a key to effective implementation for over 80 years (Gorby, 1937); initially for commercial production. Research on coaching has focused on the features of coaches more than coaching (Passmore & Fillery-Travis, 2011) Even when studies directly evaluate the link between coaching and valued outcome variables, the coaching intervention is typically a model or packaged
coaching intervention and the research is often exploratory and lacking the rigor of true scientific development (Cornett & Knight, 2009, p. 209). 8 Joyce and Showers Coaching Research 9 Defining Coaching
Training is the presentation of events, activities and materials to develop new knowledge and /or skill Coaching is the set of activities (typically provided on-site) that improve the use of new knowledge and/or skills under typical conditions. 10
Defining Coaching (cont.) Coach versus Coaching Actions rather than role Coaching versus Training Coaching skills / attributes versus coaching FUNCTIONS Knowledge of core content (PBIS Teaching Matrixgeneral case) Communication skills Time
Building professional relationships and trust Knowledge of organized context 11 Coaching Functions: What Makes a Difference? Prompting Bring newly trained skills under stimulus control of natural stimuli Fluency Building Repeated opportunities to use new skillspreferably soon after
training Performance Feedback Feedback on accuracy and shaping of trained skills Adaptation Modify trained skills to fit to local culture and context Suggest and / or encourage adaptations 12
Effects of Coach-delivered Prompting and Performance Feedback on Teacher Use of Evidence-based Classroom Management Practices and Student Michelle M. Massar Special Education and Clinical Services University of Oregon 13 Coaching Research
14 Coaching Research Data (cont.) 15 Summary Separate coaching from training Many people do bothknow which you are doing at any point in time
Build content knowledge and experience (behavior support, instructional design) Establish competencies across the four functions of coaching Prompting Fluency building Performance feedback Adaptation Match your coaching support to the teams stage of
implementation 16 Organizing a Coaching System: Making Coaching a Regular Occurrence Kim St. Martin, Michigan (MIBLSI) 17
Coaching System Definition Outlines the process for ensuring equitable, high-quality coaching is provided as people work to support the use of effective innovations 18 Coaching System Components 1. Coaching definitions 2. Systems coaching concepts
3. Conditions that warrant coaching 4. Coach pre-requisite knowledge and general responsibilities 19 Coaching System Components (cont.) 5. District guidelines:
Funding allocations (if applicable) Statement clarifying coachs decision-making authority Coaching frequency Communication protocol
Supervision and accountability structure Coach Coordinator Selection guidelines (before, during, after) 6. Individualized professional learning plan template (to be developed once coaches have been selected) 7. Coaching effectiveness data collection 20 Discussion 2.0
How might the installation and use of a Coaching System improve outcomes for the projects you are supporting? Which Coaching System components do you think are commonly overlooked? 21 Coaching Concept Examples
22 Coach Pre-Requisite Knowledge Two areas of knowledge: 1. Content (coaching concepts outlined in Coaching Service Delivery Plans) 2. Coaching: referred to as coaching foundational skills Observing and describing behavior
Developing and providing rationales Providing meaningful recognition
Raising concerns and hearing peoples concerns Developing and communicating big ideas for key concepts Addressing adaptive challenges in group situations
23 Coaching Providers External: Regional Education Agencies (REAs) may already assign ancillary staff to local districts (e.g., school psychologists, teacher consultants, speech pathologists) and allocate some of their FTE to fulfill needed coaching functions
Internal: Districts may identify their own staff to fulfill needed coaching functions (e.g., ancillary staff, Title teachers, classroom teachers) 24 District A Example District Context: Enrollment: 2032 2 elementary buildings (K-2 and 3-5)
1 middle school (6th 8th grade) 1 high school (9th 12th grade) All schools began their integrated behavior and reading MTSS installation work at the same time (one cohort) Coaching functions are fulfilled by internal, district staff 25
District A Example (cont.) Each elementary school has identified a classroom teacher that has been selected to provide systems coaching The middle school has identified two coaches (math and ELA content area teachers) The high school has identified two coaches (ELA teacher and the assistant principal) The Curriculum Director is the Coach Coordinator Each coach is provided a $500 annual stipend
26 District B Example District Context: Total enrollment: 2133 3 elementary buildings (K-4th grade) 1 intermediate / middle school (5th-8th grade) 1 high school (9th-12th grade) 1 alternative school (7th 12th grade)
Schools are divided into two cohorts with one year separating the two Cohorts are working to install and effectively use the components of an integrated behavior and reading MTSS model 27 District B Example (cont.) Cohort 1: 3 REA coaches focusing on elementary implementation and
1 internal Coach Coordinator that leads monthly meetings with coaches to discuss progress on school implementation plans, identify barriers, and to help prioritize next steps Cohort 2: Coaches are being selected in October / November using the selection guidelines listed in the fifth coaching system component Coaches will be ISD ancillary staff but selection will include both district and REA staff Another Coach Coordinator will be selected that is internal to the
district 28 REA and State Level Coaching Systems Coaching system components are the same The coaching recipients and concepts differ SEA coaching system: coaching is provided to REAs via Regional Implementation Teams REA coaching system: Coaching is provided to districts via District Implementation Teams
Depending on contextual variations (e.g., size of districts) the coaching system could also be designed to support both the district and school levels of the educational cascade If an REA is providing coaching directly to schools as they work to implement effective innovations, they are fulfilling what would be traditionally considered a district function 29 Coaching: Living Up to the Promise
Jennifer Pierce, American Institute of Research 30 In This Section How can coaches be most effective? What key barriers do we need to consider as leaders? What strategies can we use to offset barriers? What resources can be used to apply these
strategies? 31 Common Coaching Barriers 32 Potential Impact of Coaching Barriers Coaches focus on tasks and coaching behaviors that
are not linked to improved teacher practice, systems, and/or student outcomes. Resources (e.g., time, money) may be wasted. Low levels of trust exist between the coach-coaching recipient. Sources; Denton & Hasbrouck, 2009; Kretlow & Bartholomew, 2010; Wehby, Maggin, Partin, & Robertson, 2012; Pierce, 2015 33
Bottom Line The goals of coaching may not be attained. 34 The Good News! Leaders play a powerful role in reducing
barriers to coaching. Reducing barriers can increase the likelihood coaching leads to expected outcomes. 35 Strategy 1: Know the Research that Undergirds Your Systems Coaching Model
36 Rationale for Strategy 1 Many models of coaching exist in research and practice. Teacher coaching (e.g., peer to peer, expertnovice; team coaching, 1:1 coaching, reading coaching, math coaching, behavior coaching.) Systems coaching (e.g., three tiered frameworks coaching) Hybrid models (e.g., systems and teacher
coaching) 37 Rationale for Strategy 1 (cont.) We tend to overgeneralize coaching models, assuming they share the same goals and essential behaviors. Example: Teacher coaching on reading (non-hybrid model) and Systems coaching
Goals: Improved systems in teacher coaching? Observable behaviors: Modeling in systems coaching? 38 Strategy 1: Concrete Action to Take Identify: the coaching model(s) used in your system, what research suggests is important in that model, and,
what improvements you can expect to achieve. 39 Resource 1: Coaching Support Matrix and Discussion Guide 1: Summary of Research 40 Matrix of Coaching Support Models
41 Strategy 2: Unpack the Systems Logic of Coaching 42 The Logic of Coaching: Example
43 The Logic of Coaching: Example (cont.) 44 Rational for Strategy 2 We tend to spend too little time articulating the systems approach to coaching, creating confusion as to what coaches should do and
why. 45 Strategy 2: Concrete Action to Take Come to consensus with key stakeholders (e.g., other leaders, coaches, teachers) on the logic of coaching. Articulate the following: The goals of coaching Essential coaching behaviors and features of
coaching sessions, and,, The next steps needed to ensure that coaching leads to the desired goal. 46 Coaching Support Matrix and Discussion Guide: Part 2 47
Rationale for Strategy 3 Coaches rarely receive initial training or ongoing support to successfully serve in the role. Killion & Harrison, 207; Gallucci, Van Lare, Yoon, & Boatright, 2010 53 Concrete Action to Take
Provide coaches with ongoing opportunities to improve their knowledge and skills. Ensure the opportunities are linked to your systems logic of coaching. Example: If coaches are expected to provide performance feedback, help them develop their expertise in this area. Fallon, Collier-Meek, Maggin, Sanetti, & Johnson, 2015) 54
Resources for Teacher Coaching You may find it helpful to access the full suite of effective coaching resources listed here, all of which are posted on the NCSI website as well as AIRs website. There is an on-line module and the resources shared can also be found there! 55
What About Trust? Major obstacle Low alliance between teachers-coaches associated with low levels of teacher fidelity of practice. Reduced willingness and interest in coaching sessions. Bonus strategy! Wehby, Maggin, Partin & Robertson, 2012; Pierce, 2015
56 Building Coachee-Coach Alliance Specific coaching behaviors can help improve alliance
57 References Cornett, J. & Knight, J. (2009). Research on coaching. Coaching: Approaches and perspectives, 192-216. Denton, C. A., & Hasbrouck, J. A. N. (2009). A description of instructional coaching and its relationship to consultation. Journal of Educational and Psychological Consultation, 19(2), 150-175. Fallon, L. M., Collier-Meek, M. A., Maggin, D. M., Sanetti, L. M., & Johnson, A. H. (2015). Is performance feedback for educators an evidence-based
practice? A systematic review and evaluation based on single-case research. Exceptional Children, 81(2), 227246. Gallucci, C., Van Lare, M. D., Yoon, I. H., & Boatright, B. (2010). Instructional coaching building theory about the role and organizational support for professional learning. American Educational Research Journal,47(4), 919963. Killion, J., & Harrison, C. (2017). Taking the lead: New roles for teachers and school-based coaches. Learning Forward. 58 OSEP Disclaimer
2018 OSEP Project Directors Conference DISCLAIMER: The contents of this presentation were developed by the presenters for the 2018 Project Directors Conference. However, these contents do not necessarily represent the policy of the Department of Education, and you should not assume endorsement by the Federal Government. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1221e-3 and 3474)
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