Economies of Scale, Imperfect Competition, and International Trade
Economies of Scale, Imperfect Competition, and International Trade Chapter Organization Introduction Economies of Scale and International Trade:
An Overview Economies of Scale and Market Structure The Theory of Imperfect Competition Monopolistic Competition and Trade Dumping The Theory of External Economies External Economies and International Trade Summary Introduction Countries engage in international trade for two basic reasons: Countries trade because they differ either in their
resources or in technology. Countries trade in order to achieve scale economies or increasing returns in production. Two models of international trade in which economies of scale and imperfect competition play a crucial role: Monopolistic competition model Dumping model Slide 6-3
Economies of Scale and International Trade: An Overview Models of trade based on comparative advantage (e.g. Ricardian model) used the assumptions of constant returns to scale and perfect competition: Increasing the amount of all inputs used in the production of any commodity will increase output of that commodity in the same proportion. In practice, many industries are characterized by economies of scale (also referred to as increasing
returns). Production is most efficient, the larger the scale at which it takes place. Economies of Scale and International Trade: An Overview Under increasing returns to scale: Output grows proportionately more than the increase in all inputs. Average costs (costs per unit) decline with the size of the market. Economies of Scale and
International Trade: An Overview Table 6-1: Relationship of Input to Output for a Hypothetical Industry Slide 6-6 Economies of Scale and Market Structure Economies of scale can be either: External The cost per unit depends on the size of the industry but not necessarily on the size of any one firm. An industry will typically consist of many small firms and be perfectly competitive. Biaya perunit tergantung pada besarnya industri tidak tergantung pada besarnya satu perusahaan
Internal The cost per unit depends on the size of an individual firm but not necessarily on that of the industry. The market structure will be imperfectly competitive with large firms having a cost advantage over small. Biaya Per unit tergantung besarnya satu perusahaan tak perlu pada besarnya industri. Both types of scale economies are important causes of international trade . The Theory of Imperfect Competition Imperfect competition Firms are aware that they can influence the price of
their product. They know that they can sell more only by reducing their price. Each firm views itself as a price setter, choosing the price of its product, rather than a price taker. The simplest imperfectly competitive market structure is that of a pure monopoly, a market in which a firm faces no competition. The Theory of Imperfect Competition Monopoly: A Brief Review Marginal revenue
The extra revenue the firm gains from selling an additional unit Its curve, MR, always lies below the demand curve, D. In order to sell an additional unit of output the firm must lower the price of all units sold (not just the marginal one). The Theory of Imperfect Competition Figure 6-1: Monopolistic Pricing and Production Decisions Cost, C and Price, P Monopoly profits
PM AC AC MC D MR QM Quantity, Q
The Theory of Imperfect Competition Marginal Revenue and Price Marginal revenue is always less than the price. The relationship between marginal revenue and price depends on two things: How much output the firm is already selling The slope of the demand curve It tells us how much the monopolist has to cut his price to sell one more unit of output. The Theory of Imperfect Competition
Assume that the demand curve the firm faces is a straight line: Q=ABxP (6-1) Then the MR that the firm faces is given by: MR = P Q/B (6-2) Average and Marginal Costs Average Cost (AC) is total cost divided by output. Marginal Cost (MC) is the amount it costs the firm to produce one extra unit.
The Theory of Imperfect Competition Monopolistic Competition Oligopoly Internal economies generate an oligopoly market structure. There are several firms, each of which is large enough to affect prices, but none with an uncontested monopoly. Strategic interactions among oligopolists have become important. Each firm decides its own actions, taking into account how that
decision might influence its rivals actions. The Theory of Imperfect Competition Monopolistic competition A special case of oligopoly Two key assumptions are made to get around the problem of interdependence: Each firm is assumed to be able to differentiate its product from its rivals. Each firm is assumed to take the prices charged by its rivals as given.
Monopolistic Competition and Trade The monopolistic competition model can be used to show how trade leads to: A lower average price due to scale economies The availability of a greater variety of goods due to product differentiation Imports and exports within each industry (intraindustry trade) Monopolistic Competition and Trade The Effects of Increased Market Size The number of firms in a monopolistically competitive industry and the prices they charge are affected by the size of the market.
Monopolistic Competition and Trade Figure 6-4: Effects of a Larger Market Cost C, and Price, P CC1 CC2 1 P1 2 P2
PP n1 n2 Number of firms, n Monopolistic Competition and Trade Gains from an Integrated Market: A Numerical Example International trade allows creation of an integrated
market that is larger than each countrys market. It thus becomes possible to offer consumers a greater variety of products and lower prices. Monopolistic Competition and Trade Table 6-2: Hypothetical Example of Gains from Market Integration Monopolistic Competition and Trade Economies of Scale and Comparative Advantage Assumptions: There are two countries: Home (the capital-abundant country) and Foreign. There are two industries: manufactures (the capitalintensive industry) and food. Neither country is able to produce the full range of
manufactured products by itself due to economies of scale. Monopolistic Competition and Trade Figure 6-6: Trade in a World Without Increasing Returns Home (capital abundant) Foreign (labor abundant) Manufactures
Food Monopolistic Competition and Trade If manufactures is a monopolistically competitive sector, world trade consists of two parts: Intraindustry trade The exchange of manufactures for manufactures Interindustry trade The exchange of manufactures for food Monopolistic Competition and Trade Figure 6-7: Trade with Increasing Returns and Monopolistic Competition
trade Monopolistic Competition and Trade Main differences between interindustry and intraindustry trade: Interindustry trade reflects comparative advantage, whereas intraindustry trade does not. The pattern of intraindustry trade itself is unpredictable, whereas that of interindustry trade is determined by underlying differences between countries. The relative importance of intraindustry and interindustry trade depends on how similar countries are.
Monopolistic Competition and Trade The Significance of Intraindustry Trade About one-fourth of world trade consists of intraindustry trade. Intra-industry trade plays a particularly large role in the trade in manufactured goods among advanced industrial nations, which accounts for most of world trade. Monopolistic Competition and Trade Table 6-3: Indexes of Intraindustry Trade for U.S. Industries, 1993 Monopolistic Competition and Trade Why Intraindustry Trade Matters
Intraindustry trade allows countries to benefit from larger markets. The case study of the North American Auto Pact of 1964 indicates that the gains from creating an integrated industry in two countries can be substantial. Gains from intraindustry trade will be large when economies of scale are strong and products are highly differentiated. For example, sophisticated manufactured goods. Dumping The Economics of Dumping
Price discrimination The practice of charging different customers different prices Dumping The most common form of price discrimination in international trade A pricing practice in which a firm charges a lower price for an exported good than it does for the same good sold domestically Dumping It is a controversial issue in trade policy and is widely
regarded as an unfair practice in international trade. Example: As of April 2002, the United States had anti-dumping duties on 265 items from 40 different countries. Dumping can occur only if two conditions are met: Imperfectly competitive industry Segmented markets Given these conditions, a monopolistic firm may find that it is profitable to engage in dumping. Dumping Figure 6-8: Dumping
Cost, C and Price, P 3 PDOM MC 1 2 DFOR = MRFOR PFOR
DDOM MRDOM QDOM QMONOPOLY Quantities produced and demanded, Q Domestic sales Total output Exports
Dumping Reciprocal Dumping A situation in which dumping leads to two-way trade in the same product It increases the volume of trade in goods that are not quite identical. Its net welfare effect is ambiguous: It wastes resources in transportation. It creates some competition. The Theory of External Economies Economies of scale that occur at the level of the
industry instead of the firm are called external economies. There are three main reasons why a cluster of firms may be more efficient than an individual firm in isolation: Specialized suppliers Labor market pooling Knowledge spillovers External Economies and International Trade
External Economies and the Patter of Trade A country that has large production in some industry will tend to have low costs of producing that good. Countries that start out as large producers in certain industries tend to remain large producers even if some other country could potentially produce the goods more cheaply. Figure 6-9 illustrates a case where a pattern of specialization established by historical accident is persistent. External Economies and International Trade Figure 6-9: External Economies and Specialization Price, cost
(per watch) C0 1 P1 ACSWISS 2 ACTHAI D Q1
Quantity of watches produced and demanded External Economies and International Trade Trade and Welfare with External Economies Trade based on external economies has more ambiguous effects on national welfare than either trade based on comparative advantage or trade based on economies of scale at the level of the firm. An example of how a country can actually be worse off with trade than without is shown in Figure 6-10. External Economies and International Trade
Figure 6-10: External Economies and Losses from Trade Price, cost (per watch) C0 1 ACSWISS P1 P2 2 ACTHAI DWORLD
DTHAI Quantity of watches produced and demanded Summary Trade can result from increasing returns or economies of scale, that is, from a tendency of unit costs to be lower at larger levels of output. Economies of scale can be internal or external.
The presence of scale economies leads to a breakdown of perfect competition. Trade in the presence of economies of scale must be analyzed using models of imperfect competition. Summary In monopolistic competition, an industry contains a number of firms producing differentiated products. Intraindustry trade benefits consumers through greater product variety and lower prices. In general, trade may be divided into two kinds:
Two-way trade in differentiated products within an industry (intraindustry trade). Trade in which the products of one industry are exchanged for products of another (interindustry trade). Summary Dumping occurs when a firm charges a lower price abroad than it charges domestically. Dumping can occur only if two conditions are met:
The industry must be imperfectly competitive. Markets must be geographically segmented. External economies give an important role to history and accident in determining the pattern of international trade. When external economies are important, countries can conceivably lose from trade.
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