NLM CONVERSION TO BUILD ATOMIC PHYSICS CONTENT IN AN AGILE FASHION JATS-CON, April 2, 2014 OSA The Optical Society & DCL Data Conversion Laboratory, Inc. 1 scholarly publisher with 19 current and legacy journals, 300+ conference proceedings
2 OSA Governance: Build moreflexible products and services! How? Break 1917-2012 content into well-polished atomic pieces following an industry standard Develop infrastructure to manage and enrich content, to build new products and services in an agile fashion Budget allocated for five-year strategic plan
3 Some evidence of success With content converted to NLM XML, have developed Enhanced article: Interactive HTML Derivative products: ImageBank Business Intelligence: New insights into author, topic, funding, and other trends
4 Citation data 5 Equation data 6
7 Legacy content (750,000 journal pages) We expected this . . . 8 This . . . not so much JOURNAL AS COMIC BOOK
SCHOOL YEARBOOK 9 1. Most confusing: Articles skipping pages, sometimes in two directions 10 2. Most shocking: legacy PDF not matching Legacy
print Print Legacy PDF for same article 11
3. Most pervasive: nonscientific content tacked onto research articles These are not the authors 12 Project specifications: two extremes
1. Hand the project over to the trusted vendor and be done with it 2. Spend up to a year doing heavy content analysis
and spec creation 13 Data Conversion Laboratory We convert content from any format to any format. Expertise with JATS, and most industry standard DTDs and Schemas Established in 1981; a pioneer in the data conversion industry Over a billion pages converted
Expertise in complex conversion projects; STM Publishing, eBooks, Technical documents, Educational Publishing, and Library Digitization. Projects range from one book to entire libraries and legacy collections Infrastructure for large-scale projects, with automated tracking, quality assurance, and customer reporting for every item Industries include Publishing, Technical Societies, Aerospace, Government, Defense, Health Sciences, Libraries & Universities
Publish DCLNews, a monthly newsletter devoted to XML and Electronic Publishing topics going to 7,000 subscribers 14 Thoughts on Managing a Large Legacy Conversion Effort 1)
Phased Approach 2) Flexibility and Collaboration 3) Keep it Simple 4)
Keep Monitoring Quality 15 1) Phased Approach Why? Varied sources (PDF, XML, SGML) Content that changed over time Very large input corpus going back to 1917
Allow for the quick, phased release of new OSA products Strategy for OSA materials Focus on one source type at a time but keep the big picture in mind Convert newest material first Review and decide on conversion nuances as they came up 16 Source Material Challenges XML
OSA Proprietary DTD NLM v2.3 DTD PDF PDF Normal PDF Image SGML Multiple DTDs 17
2) Build Flexibility and Collaboration into the Conversion Process Develop an overall specification, with allowance for change as new scenarios are uncovered Software development sprints to incorporate changes
Close collaboration with OSA to manage new situations affecting completed work and work in process 18 Tools Used to Retain Flexibility Client-Vendor
collaboration for decision making Hub and Spoke processing Handling of conversion anomalies Quality assurance reviews
Learning databanks 19 3)Theres a Lot of Detail Keep It Simple Fitting structures into the existing JATS tagging structure CALS to HTML table conversion MathML line break retention Cross-reference ranges Rendering limitations
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26 Unexpected Content Scenarios (cont.) White space filler 27
4) Keep Checking Quality Dont Get Too Far Ahead Visual review OSA Schematron Reporting stylesheets OCR and hyphenation spellchecker software QA software
Learning databanks 28 Visual Review Correct entities are used Math displays correctly Table alignment is accurate Images correspond to the source
29 OSA Schematron The Schematron includes over 300 checks Warning:ALERT [LJF:RGCO250]: ref 'b10': unpublished materials must have @publication-type='other' ($unpublished and @publicationtype != 'communication' and @publication-type != 'other' / warning) [report] Warning:ALERT [LJF:JBCO140]: no tables found but title reads 'Figures and Tables' (matches(title, 'Table') and not(exists(tablewrap)) / warning) [report]
ERROR [LJF:RGCO250]: ref 'b14': journal citation contains more than one article-title (count(article-title) > 1) [report] 30 DCL QA Software Highlight any discrepancies between the specifications and the tagging Identify suspicious start of a paragraph Flag missing external files associated with the XML
Find missing cross references to specified structures such as Tables and Figures 31 Hyphenation Spellchecker 32
Reporting Stylesheets Provides easier review of metadata components for a set of articles 33 OCR Tools
Modified versions of the fonts designed to help distinguish between similar looking characters O vs 0, Z vs 2, 1 vs l used within the proofreading phase 34 Learning Databanks Ongoing updates made based on feedback and newly determined rules and structures
Conclusions OSA has nearly completed a large backfile conversion project in close coordination with DCL. The project, which is based around NLM markup, has allowed OSA to enhance its publishing platform, build derivative products, and significantly improve its ability to gather business intelligence from a deep journal backfile. We offer the following lessons learned: With large content projects, plan ahead but prepare to work in an agile fashion The content owner should stay engaged throughout the project to
align real-time decisions with business aims Ownervendor collaborationwhen the right partners are involved improves morale, attention to detail, and decision-making 36 Scott Dineen Sr. Director Publishing Production & Technol.
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