Maitres Chez Nous Masters of Our Own House Quebecs Path to Nationhood
Je me souviens = I Remember What the heck does the Quebec license plate slogan mean?
Just what is it that Quebecois are trying to remember? 3 Key Terms Francophone = French-speaking, French - cultured person
Anglophone = English-speaking, Englishcultured person Quebecois or Quebeker = A Francophone from Quebec Canadas French/English Split
This split between French and English Canada did not just happen overnight This split has been started and growing for close to 250 years or longer if you count France
& Englands history! The Historical Roots The English and French have had a long record of hatred and warfare between them.
Both have a different culture: language, religion, government system, land ownership etc Both the French and the
English believe the others culture is inferior. Both England and France were in direct competition for power and wealth during the age of colonization.
New France In 1534, Jacques Cartier explored the east coast of North America. Cartier claimed the land he
found for the Kingdom of France and was renamed New France. Samuel de Champlain Between 1609 1616, Samuel
de Champlain explored further west up the St. Lawrence River. Champlain founded the cities of Quebec and Montreal.
Seigneurial System After Champlains explorations, thousands of French settlers, called Habitants, came to North America for better opportunities and the chance to own a farm for
themselves. A seigneur was a wealthy landowner who rented land to settlers. Habitant Life In New
France Because New France was so far from France, life was slow and simple. Habitants were content to live off the land.
Habitants farmed, cut wood, grew vegetables, hunted. French-Indian War 17541763 The French and English were both wishing to dominate North
America. Their power struggle turned into a full-blown war 1754. Both sides attracted First Nations to help battle the enemy.
After a series of battles, the French began to retreat closer and closer to Quebec Citytheir main fortification. A final battle was fought called The Battle of the Plains of Abraham.
The French were defeated and the British now controlled North America. Treaty of Paris 1783 To end the war a treaty was
signed. The British could not kick out the 65,000 French in Quebecthey made the economy stay strong. The French were ALLOWED TO STAY!
The treaty also allowed the French to speak French. Also, allowed French to remain Catholic. The French did have to swear
a loyalty oath to the English King. The New English Landlords The English were now in
charge of Quebec. More and more English settlers began to move in and the discrimination against the French began.
English Discrimination The English began to dominate the colonial government. One law they passed was no Catholics could vote. Also, Government business was
to be held in the English language only. English = Masters French = Servants English merchants began
buying out French owners. French settlers were quickly becoming the cheap labour for English business. English merchants looked down
on French habitant farmers as backwards and primitivethe future was in factoriesnot farming! The habitants wanted nothing to do with working in grimy, noisy
factoriesthey preferred the farm. The Quebecois have not forgotten how the new English Landlords
discriminated against francophones in Canadas early history. Rebellions of 1837-38 One of the main reasons
Francophone settlers decided to revolt against the English government was the unfair treatment the Englishdominated government showed Francophone citizens.
Chateau- Clique The English dominated business and government, although most people in the colony were French.
The English government taxed French farmers more than English factories. Louis Joseph Papineau A Francophone lawyer named Louis
Joseph Papineau rose up as a leader of the common people. The Francophone citizens tried their best to peacefully ask for fairness They were ignored by arrogant British governors.
The followers called themselves les Patriotes. Papineau decided it was time to fight back! The Patriotes fought hard
against the skilled and trained English armyand lost! Extra Hard Punishment for Patriotes When the English soldiers arrested
those who rebelled, they picked out the Francophone rebels for the harsher punishments. Patriote farms were burned to the ground. Patriote leaders were exiled more
and longer than English rebels. The Quebecois have not forgotten how Patriotes were punished more harshly than English
rebels. Lord Durham = Match to Gasoline! An English Lord came to the colonies to find out why so
many settlers were unhappy enough to rebel. Durham carried the typical English intolerance for the French culture.
One of Durhams recommendations was: The French settlers need to be more English Lose the French language and learn English quick if the
Francophones wished to progress and be sucessful. Durhams recommendations did not go over well with Francophones.
Durhams attitudes sounded like assimilation to them Was not this French territory one a long time ago? The more the English treated
the French unfairly The more the English tried to assimilate the French to become English The more the French saw the English as conquerors and
dictators. The Quebecois have not forgotten how Lord Durham thought French culture was 2nd class
and how Durham pushed for French to assimilate to be more English. Confederation As the decades flew by, more
and more English, Scottish and Irish settlers moved into North American colonies. The Francophones began to feel outnumbered and vulnerable.
Francophones began to feel like they were an island of French surrounded by a
sea of English. Hallo! Parlais vous Francais?
When the chance to confederate and join Canada came along in 1867, Francophones were nervous Many felt that they would be
swamped in an English-majority nation and their Francophone language and culture would be swallowed. There were mixed feelings
by the Quebecois on joining Canada. Even today, Quebecois call the Federal government of Canada the English government.
Special Deals Made to Get Quebec To Join Confederation Quebec is guaranteed a certain
number of senators no matter if Quebecs population drops. Quebec is guaranteed a number of seats for judges in the Supreme Court of Canada.
Manitoba Schools: French or English? Another flashpoint became the issue of whether Manitobas schools would teach in English or French?
A compromise was made which still exists today: Schools would offer both types of schools depending on the wish of the parents.
The Riel Rebellions/Resistances Louis Riel was, like most Metis, a francophone. Twice, Riel fought against the Canadian government to
protect the Metis culture. Quebec Supported Riel Riel was supported by Quebec because: a) The Metis were mostly francophone b) The Quebecois saw the government
as bullies and trying to assimilate the Metis into English Canada. In 1885, Riel was captured after leading a failed attempt to create a Metis province.
Riel was put on trial, found guilty of treason and sentenced to be hanged. Canadas Scottish Prime Minister,
John A. MacDonald could have saved Riels lifeand Quebecois did ask him to do that.but, MacDonald refused and ordered Riels execution.
"Riel should hang... though every dog in Quebec bark in his favor Speech by John A. MacDonald
The Quebecois have not forgotten how English Canada treated francophone Louis Riel and hanged him by his neck!
Henri Bourassa: Father of Quebec Nationalism Bourassa, a francophone, felt strongly that Quebecois needed to assert their
rights and culture or they would be swallowed up by English Canada. Bourassa started a French-language newspaper called Le Devoir ( The voice) where he wrote pro-nationalism editorials.
Bourassa spoke out against Canadas participation in both the Boer War and WWI. He saw both wars as English wars and did not think
Quebecois should die for English causes. WWI: Quebec Labelled as Traitors Many English Canadians perceived
that the Quebecois were not doing their part in volunteering to fight in WWI. Although it may be true English Canadians volunteered in greater numbers, it is also true that many
Quebecois did enlist. Many die in battle. Maurice Duplessis Era Duplessis was premier of Quebec throughout the 1930s
to 1940s. Duplessis did believe that Quebec should be autonomous, but was very old school conservative.
Under Duplessis, the Catholic Church had lots of power in advising the government. Quebec schools focused on the classics like history, philosophy and Latinbut
ignored math and science. Duplessis was caught many times taking bribes corruption was rampant. Duplessis hated labour
unions and workers were exploited Quebcois wanted change! The Quiet Revolution After Duplessis died in 1959, a
new, younger leader named Jean Lesage emerged as the next Premier of Quebec. A sweeping wind of change called the Quiet Revolution came to Quebec.
Quebec began to: - modernizeget away from farming and get into manufacturing - break away from the Catholic Church and cut their power
- Educate Quebecs children in math and science and get away from old learning Quebec wanted to control all sources of economy again.
Quebec for Quebeckers Maitres Chez Nous All Quebec resources controlled by Quebec and not Ottawa! Renee Levesque
Throughout the 1960s a radio anchorman became a leader for Quebec nationalism. Renee Levesque was convinced Quebec was its own nation and needed to separate from
Canada. Parti Quebecois Levesque helped create a brand new political party in Quebecthe Parti Quebecois.
Their main goal was to separate the province of Quebec from Canada and create a new nation. Vive QuebecVive Quebec
Libre! in a speech delivered by French President Charles de Gaulle in Montreal on July 24, 1967. De Gaulle was in Canada on an official state visit under the pretext of attending Expo 67. While giving an address to a large crowd from a
balcony at Montreal city hall, he uttered Vive le Qubec ! (Long live Quebec!) then added, Vive le Qubec libre ! (Long live free Quebec!) Vive le Qubec libre ! was a popular slogan for people wishing to show their support for Quebec sovereignty.
English Canadas response was cold What did Quebec mean by being freed? They were as free as any other
Canadian? Right??? 1968 World Expo The city of Montreal was chosen as the host city for the World Expo in 1968.
Quebec was excited to show the world their province to millions of visitors. Someone suggested a new license plate slogan! Good idea!!!
Many entries were sent in One of the most popular was this slogan: Quebec150 Years of Oppression
English Canada was NOT AMUSED! The Bi and Bi Commission
To smooth the hard feelings, A Royal Commission on bilingualism and biculturalism was called for. One of the recommendations was for Canada to become officially
bilingual and multicultural. Both of these would be added to the Canadian Constitution by 1982.
New Canadian Flag Prime Minister Lester Pearson thought a new flag would help unify the nation. The old flag was a borrowing of the British Union Jack
Quebec did not like this flag! So, a contest was called for. Hundreds of designs were sent in. One by one the designs were
rejected. English Symbols Colour Red Union Jack
Lion French Symbols Colour = blue Fleur-de-lis Unicorn
The chosen winner was a disappointment for Quebecois No blueno fluer-de-lis Many Quebecois call Canadas flag the English flag and
dont put the national flag up. They fly the provincial flag instead! Distinct Society Status The PQ began to send the message
that they wanted to negotiate a new relationship with Canada. They wanted to get special language in the constitution to protect Quebecois language and culture.
The other provinces began to get nervous(and jealous????) Why should Quebec get any special treatment that
other provinces would not get? The FLQ Crisis During the late 1960s and early 1970s a group formed calling
themselves the FLQ ( Front de Liberation du Quebec). The groups goal was to create a separate Quebec and to free their jailed friends.
The FLQ turned to terrorist tactics in order to gain Canadas attention. They robbed banks to finance their mission They also burned mailboxes and
the Montreal Stock Exchange to disrupt the nations economy. The October Crisis In October, 1970, the FLQ were accused of kidnapping 2
diplomatsPierre Lapointe and James Cross. The Quebec government asked the Federal Government to enact the War Measures Act PM Trudeau did.
When asked by a reporter just how far he was willing to go to catch the FLQ kidnappers, Trudeau replied:
Just watch me! Many Canadians, including Quebecois, were horrified when an abandoned car was found near the Quebec
airport. The trunk was opened by police and the body of Pierre Lapoint was found. War Measures Act:
Necessary or Not? The War Measures Act allowed Quebecs police and the Canadian military unusually strong powers to search, detain and question anybody suspected
of being a part of the FLQ. Many civil rights were ignored. Many began to criticize Trudeaus moveit was heavyhanded and unnecessary. Until the day he died, Trudeau
says he did the right thing by calling out the War Measures Act. He felt the nation was at risk and threat by the FLQ.
Bill 101 The PQ stirred the pot again, when they decided to pass a controversial law called Bill 101. Bill 101 was passed to protect
the French language in the province of Quebec. It made French the official language of the state and of the courts in the province of
Qubec, as well as making it the normal and habitual language of the workplace, of instruction, of communications, of commerce and of business.
Education in French became compulsory for immigrants. Under Bill 101, all public signs must be in Frenchand French only!
Any business with English in its sign could be given a ticket by Quebecs language police. Quebecs Anglophones said their language rights were being trampled.
1980 Referendum : Sovereignty Association In 1980, the Parti Quebecois was betting that they could get enough votes from Quebecois to separate from Canada
A special vote called a referendum was called Only Quebec citizens were allowed to vote. The PQ wanted to have a new
relationship with Canada called Sovereignty Association. Basically, Quebec would be sovereign (make its own decisions) but would still have economic partnership with
Canada. Sovereignty Association is like: Having your cake and eating it too!
The Rest Of Canada (ROC) was outraged! Stay in Canadaor stay out! Cant have it both ways! 1980 Referendum
Results The PQ failed to get enough votes to separate. 40.44% = Yes 59.56% = No
Canada let out a huge sigh of relief Canada would remain safe as a nation.for now. Could Quebec threaten the concept of Canada if they voted
again???? English Canada was worried. 1982: Repatriation of Canadas Constitution PM Trudeau worked hard to bring
Canadas Constitution back from England. He was successful, and it would be repatriated in 1982. Trudeau was also hoping to open up the Constitution up for any
necessary changes. Trudeau invited all 10 provinces to send their premiers and they would discuss these changes.
One big change would be how to add an amendment that would allow changes to be made to the Constitution. Quebec was hoping to use this
opportunity to add the Distinct Society language that would protect Quebecs culture and add sovereignty. The other 9 provinces would have nothing to do with Quebecs
Distinct Society. Quebec felt snubbed and ignored. The Kitchen Compromise The nine other provinces felt the talks were going nowhere
as long as Quebec kept disagreeing with how the constitution should change. Something really devious was planned
The nine other Premiers called an informal meeting one nightin a kitchen of a hotel they were staying in. The nine Premiers neglected to notify the Premier from
QuebecRenee Levesque. Without Quebecs input, the other nine Premiers voted on an amending formula to change the Constitution
7 out of 10 provinces had to agree. 50% of Canadas population had to be living in those 7 provinces. This formula effectively
blocked Quebec from ever having the power to add the distinct society clause into the Constitution Without the support of English Ontario, Quebec would not
make up the necessary 50%. Quebec felt stabbed in the back over the Kitchen Compromise. Why was Levesque left out that night?
The other nine Premiers tried to make excuses that they did not want to disturb Levesqueor, they thought he left town. Because of the bad feelings
created after this meeting, Quebec refused to sign the Canadian Constitution. All of the other nine provinces have. Bad blood still exists between
the provinces over this. The Notwithstanding Clause One area all ten provinces agreed upon before they
would sign the new Constitution was that each province could opt out of the Constitution if they felt strongly about a change.
Example: Bill 101 Notwithstanding the fact that Quebecs Anglophones rights are being trampled on by having signs only in French, Quebec has the right to opt out and ignore that
Canada is officially bilingual. Quebecs defense = protect the French language. Heres a Good Question! If the Notwithstanding Clause
allows a province to opt out from following the Constitution, why have a Constitution at all? What would keep any province from staying a part of Canada then?
Anglophones Perceive Quebec to be Whiners Go Back To France! A strong belief by Anglophone
Canadiansespecially out westis that Quebec unfairly gets special treatment from Ottawa. Ottawa bribes Quebec by
giving them lots of government $$$ to stay in Canada. The Bloc Quebecois Quebec Separatists wanted to send a message to Ottawathe
English government The message was that Quebec wanted out of the marriage with Canada and they would seek a divorce.
Working hand-in-hand with the provincial PQ, the BQ began to find candidates for the upcoming election. To no ones surprise, the Bloc Quebecois won the most seats
in Parliament. Of course, they only get support in Quebecnowhere else. Every day the Bloc MPs are in Parliament, they speak for
Quebecois values. Every day the Bloc speaks in Parliament, they remind Canada that Quebec is different. The BQs goal is still to
separate one day. Meech Lake Accord PM Brian Mulroney followed a promise to allow a meeting of all provinces to attempt to make
changes to the Constitution. Mulroney also promised this meeting if Quebecois supported his party in the last election! Francophone separatists
from Quebec felt the Meech Lake Accord could be the place to get their distinct status and more provincial powers and less federal government powers for
Quebec put into the constitution. Guess again Quebec! Of course, the other 9 provinces were reluctant
to give Quebec special status and the talks quickly deteriorated into more squabbling. Elijah Harper
A First Nations MP from Manitoba stopped the whole Meech Lake Accord when he stated: If Quebec gets special status in the constitution, what about
all of Canadas First Nations? Quebecs Reaction to Meech Lake Quebecois felt angry and rejected by the failure of Meech Lake.
Quebecois felt that The Rest Of Caanda (ROC), refused to listen to what Quebec was seeking. Once again, the majority English win and the Quebecois lose!
Charlottetown Accord Even though Meech Lake was a total failure and brought out more animosity, Mulroney tries AGAIN to allow the provinces to make changes in the
constitution. This time, 1992, Charlottetown Accord was called into session. Just like Meech Lake, the talks broke down over Quebec
wanting special status and more powers than the other provinces. Just like Meech Lake, the Charlottetown Accord began to break down and cause more
animosity. arlottetown Accord Referendum Results Ye s
No Turno ut Nfld
63. 36. 53.3 2 8
PEI 73. 26. 70.5 9 1
NS 48. 51. 67.8 8
2 NB 61. 38. 72.2
8 2 Ont 50. 49.
71.9 1 9 Man
38. 61. 70.6 4 6 Sask
44. 55. 68.7 7 3
Alta 39. 60. 72.6 8 2
Western Rumblings During the Charlottetown Accord, many western provinces began to rumble that THEY felt ignored by Eastern Canada
Maybe the western provinces should threaten to Break away too! Quebecs Reaction to Charlottetown Accord
Again, just like Meech Lake, the Quebecois felt ignored and rejected by English Canada. Two times they tried to get what they felt they needed and two times rejected!
Separation seemed like the only answer! 1995 Referendum
Between 1992 and 1995, separation talk intensified. Both the PQ and BQ were putting lots of money and talk to convince Quebecois to separate.
The PQ and BQ felt the timing was right for a 2nd referendum to have Quebec separate from Canada. Tension was high.
Would Canada break up? Canadas economy began to decline over the uncertainty of Canadas future. Corporations began to leave
Quebec. The Canadian dollar began to lose value. People were worried! The Feds React
The Federal Government under PM Jean Chretien, reacted to the referedum by pouring tax money into Quebec Advertising was bought to convince Quebec to stay in Canada.
Some call this bribe money The Unity Rally Many Anglophone Canadians began to worry about the nation breaking up.
Many Anglophones wanted to send a message of support to Quebec Bumper-stickers were made. My Canada Includes Quebec!
Many of these Anglophone Canadians spent their own money to fly to Quebec and attend a grassroots show of support to encourage Quebec
to stay in Canada. This rally was called The Unity Rally Some say the Unity Rally was the one thing that showed
Quebecois that average, common Anglophone Canadians really did support Quebec and did care about Quebecois culture and that thay wanted Quebec to stay
in Canada! 1995 Referendum Vote Results This vote was the closest Canada has ever gotten to
breaking up the nation! Yes = 49.4% No = 50.6 % The Clarity Bill After the very frightening
and close 1995 Referendum, the Federal Government decided to close the door on another Quebec referendum happening ever again!
PM Chretien went to the Supreme Court of Canada to sue Quebec for holding an illegal referendum The Supreme court judges heard
all sides and made a ruling. This ruling is in power today. 1. Yes Quebec can hold another vote to separate from Canada. 2. The results have to be higher than
51% yes ( but the court declined to give a percentage that would be acceptable) 3. The language on the ballot must clearly state that I voting yes it means a complete separation from
Canada. Two Scorpions PM Trudeau had this to say about the long battles between Francophone separatists and
Anglophone Federalists: They are like two scorpions trapped in a bottle.
Sad Sovereignist Woman She slips on a camisole with the fleur-de-lis flag. To signal her autonomy. He irons his t-shirt with the single-leaf flag While grumbling about colonies. She clinks glasses to the good king Franois the
first, He sips his scotch from the old country. She says that all this, it is his fault. He snores all alone at night in his queen bed. (Refrain:) We must separate, we must split up,
Either you go away or me, I leave you Take the Pacific, I keep the Atlantic Together and indpendantriste We must separate, we must split up, Either you go away or me, I leave you Be peaceful, I remain
authentic/genuine Forever indpendantriste Can the Confederation of Canada survive this battle between two
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