Respiratory System Physiology Breathing Pulmonary Ventilation Inspiration- in Expiration- out Breathing occurs because
of a pressure gradient between the lungs and exterior environment Respiratory muscles control the size of the thoracic cavity setting up the gradient
Inspiration When the diaphragm contracts it increases size of thoracic cavity Intercostal muscles aid in expanding size of rib cage
Expiration Is aided by elastic recoil, tendency of thorax and lungs to return to shape When muscles relax it causes a decrease in size of thorax Compliance is the ability of lungs to relax or stretch
Breathing Patterns Eupnea- normal quiet breathing Hyperpnea- increased breathing rate and depth to meet need for O2 Hyperventilation- increased breathing rate and depth with out need for O2 Hypoventilation- slowed breathing
Dyspnea- difficult labored breathing Apnea- cessation of breathing Exchange of Gases O2 and CO2 move across pressure gradients from the atmosphere
into the lungs Alveolar and capillary surface area is extremely large with thin walls Capillaries in lungs have a diameter one cell
thick Transport of O2 Hemoglobin greatly increases the amount of O2 that can be dissolved in the blood Transport of CO2 A small amount of CO2
binds amino acid groups onto hemoglobin Most of the CO2 in blood associates with H2O to form carbonic acid H2CO3 (bicarbonate) H2CO3 once catalyzed by carbohydrate anhydrase (enzyme) dissociates into
H+ and HCO3 Increased CO2 in the blood causes a decrease in blood pH/increase in acidity Systemic Gas Exchange As oxygenated blood enters tissues it has high Po 2 and low Pco2 relative to the tissue O2 is pulled off the hemoglobin and CO 2 binds temporary to
hemoglobin to form carbaminohemoglobin Respiratory Control Centers Ventilation is the rate and depth of breathing Ventilation is controlled by the medullary rhythmicity centers of the brain
The apneustic center stimulates the inspiratory center thus increasing respiration The pneumotaxic center inhibits the apneustic center in the brain Factors that influence
Breathing Chemoreceptors in the medulla measure levels of CO2 Low levels of CO2 will decrease rate and depth of breathing High levels of CO2 increase rate and
depth of breathing pH plays a small role in controlling breath Blood levels of O2 seem to have little effect on breathing rate Breathing Reflexes Hering-Breuer reflex
maintains normal breath depth Once tidal volume is reached, inhalation stretch receptors trigger inhibitory impulses to the inspiratory centers of the brain
Breathing Reflexes Breathing can be controlled voluntarily to a certain extent You cannot hold your breath till you die, CO2 is too strong a stimulant Sudden stimulation - reflex
apnea Sudden cold stimuli - reflex apnea Stimulation of pharynx or larynx causes choking reflex Breathing can be affected by emotions
Breathing Reflexes Cough reflex- caused by stimulation Sneeze reflex- air is forced out nose and mouth(100 mph) Hiccup- caused by a spasm of diaphragm Yawn- slow and deep
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