Direct-Drive Rotary Generator Design by Genetic Algorithm for

Direct-Drive Rotary Generator Design by Genetic Algorithm for

Direct-Drive Rotary Generator Design by Genetic Algorithm for Ocean Wave Energy Application Christopher Haller Graduate Research Assistant Oregon State University [email protected] Hai-Yue Han Graduate Research Assistant Oregon State University [email protected] Dr. Ted K.A. Brekken, Ph.D. Assistant Professor

Oregon State University [email protected] Dr. Annette von Jouanne, Ph.D. P.E. Professor Oregon State University [email protected] Research Conducted: June - September 2009 Presentation: October 5, 2009 Presentation Outline 1.

2. 3. 4. 5. Wave Energy Background Design Considerations Mechanical Layout Time Domain Electromagnetic Analysis Conclusion Wave Energy Background 2007 10kW

Seabeav I 11 foot spar 4 foot diameter float Designed for water depth of 135 feet 2007 10kW Seabeav I Preparing for sea trial in Newport

[5] 2007 10kW Seabeav I Sea Trial 2008 10kW L-10 25 feet tall, 11 feet wide Direct Drive Integrated Linear Generator No pneumatics or hydraulics Developed in collaboration with C.P.T. and the Navy 2008 10kW L10 Sea Trial

OSU Facilities to Advance Wave Power Wallace Energy Systems and Renewables Facility (WESRF) O.H. Hinsdale Wave Research Lab (HWRL) OSU Key Location for Wave Power Research Wallace Energy Systems and Renewables Facility (WESRF) 750 KVA Adjustable Power Supply

Variable Voltage input(0-600Vac), 600A 3-phase adjustable (while loaded) for balanced and unbalanced testing Highest Power University Lab in the Nation Enables Multi-Scale energy research Four Quadrant Dynamometer Programmable torque/speed Dynamic Vector Controls 0-4000 rpm Bidirectional Grid Interface Regeneration back to the utility grid Flexible, 300 hp,Motor/Generator testbed 120KVA programmable source Transient VLrms=680V Steady State VLrms= 530V

Frequency range: 45Hz to 2KHz 10 kW Linear Test Bed 2 m/s, 10 kN 1 ms/, 20 kN Why Wave Energy? Wind Energy 587 W/m2 with 8 m/s mean distribution of wind speed Solar Energy 200 W/m2 Year Round Average

Wave Energy 30kW/m Year-Round-Average Available [2,3,4] Why Wave Energy? Wave Power Density in Kilowatts per Meter [kW/m] [1] Design Considerations Design Considerations

Low Speed Operation (5 rpm) Reciprocating Rotary Design High Torque Load Caustic Ocean Environment Serviceability Complications Top Level Design Choices Machines Considered

PMAC Doubly Fed Induction Induction Reluctance Vernier Hybrid Characteristics

Axial / Radial Super Conductor Crescent Shaped Air / Iron Core Mechanical Layout Single Coil & C-Core Structure Three-Phase Coil Configuration Cross-Sectional Top-Down View

Single Layer Structure Top Level Machine Structure Floating Machine Structure Time Domain Electromagnetic Analysis Simplified Magnetic Circuit Calculation Methods

Magnetic Circuit Analysis Magnetic Shear Line to 2nd Quadrant B-H Operation intercept Initial Motor Chromosome Primary Gene Set 1 Radius of Machine 2

Length of One Side of C-Core 3 Distance Across Air Gap 4 Cross-Sectional Area of Magnets 5 Length of Magnets

6 Thickness of Magnets 7 Wire Turns 8 Wire Gauge 9 Machine Layers

Initial Genetic Algorithm Initial population created. Population doubled. Random cross breeding between 1st and 2nd population set Random mutations w/ fixed-rate / fixed-probability (quantity)

All genes saturation checked / adjusted. Fitness of chromosomes evaluated, sorted from best to worst. Worst of chromosomes discarded, repeat back to doubling. Best motor tracked throughout process. Refined Generator Chromosome Simplified / Refined Gene Set 1 Magnet Width 2 Magnet Length

3 Magnet Thickness 4 Air Gap Distance 5 Wire Gauge 1 Time Domain Refinement

Simplified GA Variables Maximum allowable turns Magnet Width 2 Magnet Length 3 Magnet Height 4 Air Gap Distance

5 Wire Gauge in air-gap. Steel thickness based upon allowed flux density. Many safety/saturation

checks removed. Processing speed 4.3 times faster than previous model. Genetic Algorithm Cost Functions {Negative numbers indicate a more fit machine}

-Total Power -Total Power, -Efficiency, +Steel Volume -Total Power, -Efficiency, + Total Mass, +AWG, +Wire Turns -Total Power, Efficiency, +Total Mass, +AWG Size, Wire Turns Used for final evaluation: -Total Power, -Efficiency, +Total Mass, +Magnet Volume Parametric Sweep of 5 Genes

Swept 25 steps nested sweep. 9,765,625 evaluations. 1.5x the run time of the refined (2nd) design, 2.8x slower run time of original design (1st). Evaluated with GA cost function for fitness.

Results different from GA. Results GA vs. Sweep Results Variable GA Sweep Units 1

Magnet Width .0020 0.0063 [m] 2 Magnet Length .1157

0.2990 [m] 3 Magnet Height .0254 0.0244 [m] 4

Air Gap Distance .0034 0.0200 [m] 5 Wire Gauge 20

19 AWG Characteristics GA Sweep Units Open EMF (per coil)

0.258 122 [V] Current (per coil, @ 2.5 [A / mm2]) 1.294 1.632 [A] Single Layer Total Power

9 1843 [W] Efficiency (from R. loss) 94 87 [%]

Single Layer Mass 20 811 [kg] Coil Turns 1 319 qty

Torque (per wheel) 18.5g 4192 [Nm] Finite Element Analysis Conclusion Conclusions & Future Work Conclusions:

5 [rpm] generator is feasible. Generator possible, but heavy. Weight and slow speed lead to issue of cost. Future Work Direction:

Examine larger variety of motor topologies. Perform more in-depth cost analysis. Refinements to manufacturability. Bibliography [1] http://www.geni.org/globalenergy/library/renewable-energy-resources/ocean.shtml Global Energy Network Institute [2] http://blogs.mysanantonio.com/weblogs/clockingin/wind%20turbine.jpg [3] http://venturebeat.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/solar-panel-1.jpg [4] http://eecs.oregonstate.edu/wesrf/projects/images/Wave%20Energy_Final.ppt [5] Steven Ernst. Personal interview, 2009. Oregon State University. [6] Duane C. Hanselman. Brushless Permanent-Magnet Motor Design, 1994. [7] Magcraft. Permanent magnet selection and design handbook. National Imports, April 2007. [8] Ned Mohan. Electric Drives: An Integrative Approach, 2003.

[9] Joseph Prudell. Email, 2009. Oregon State University. [10]Joseph Prudell. Novel design and implementation of a permanent magnet linear tubular generator for ocean wave energy conversion, 2007. Thesis for Master of Science. [11] P.C. Sen. Principles of Electric Machines and Power Electronics, 1997. [12] Mueller & McDonald. A Lightweight Low Speed Permanent Magnet Electrical Generator for Direct-Drive Wind Turbines, 2008. Acknowledgement Thanks to Grainger Center for Electric Machinery and Electromechanics for supporting this research.

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • A presentation of several different philosophical approaches to

    A presentation of several different philosophical approaches to

    A presentation of several different philosophical approaches to the problem of pain and suffering. ... if it will lead to greater pleasure later -Thus prudence is the greatest of man's virtues Influences -Nominalism of William of Ockham -Empirical method of...
  • Appropriate Behaviors - East Carolina University

    Appropriate Behaviors - East Carolina University

    Dressing for Success. Communicating through Outward Appearance. Module 7 Activity 1. In this activity, we'll discuss how people communicate through their outward appearance and how you can learn to dress for success in college.
  • Welcome to BTEC Sports - AS Physical Education

    Welcome to BTEC Sports - AS Physical Education

    EXAM QUESTION. The action of throwing can be transferred from one sport to another. (a) Describe what is meant by the term . transfer of learning. and
  • Monitoring Conformance to the Internal Regulation of an MSc ...

    Monitoring Conformance to the Internal Regulation of an MSc ...

    Monitoring Conformance to the Internal Regulation of an MSc Course using Ontologies and Rules. G. Papadopoulos, N. Bassiliades. ... Appropriate software (DL-reasoner and SWRL rule engine) to monitor the compliance of student's performance to the IR and detect any deviations...
  • Dr. Tom Dauphinee Deputy Director of Assessment and ...

    Dr. Tom Dauphinee Deputy Director of Assessment and ...

    Test Design and Transition to Common Core Standards New Mexico's accountability model includes measures of student growth from the NMAPA and the general assessment. Mentioned earlier that the NMAPA is vertically linked and articulated. A linear transformation is applied to...
  • XRS Calibration Status & In-Flight Plan Energy Scale

    XRS Calibration Status & In-Flight Plan Energy Scale

    The energy scale is a complicated, non-analytic function. Using a physical model for the pulses, we find that E(V) can be well characterized by a 4th order polynomial. For ground calibration data this gives an energy scale that is accurate...
  • Classical & Keynesian Economics Samir K Mahajan AGGREGATE

    Classical & Keynesian Economics Samir K Mahajan AGGREGATE

    Classical Economists and Keynes on Full-Employment . The entire economic premise of the classical economists was based on the assumption of full-employment of labour and other economic resources. Classical . economists argued that in the long-run under perfect competition ....
  • Chris Ross Inclusive Learning and Teaching Officer King's ...

    Chris Ross Inclusive Learning and Teaching Officer King's ...

    Support to enhance staff understanding and leadership on promotion of equality, diversity and inclusive practices. ... Teaching and Assessment approaches to identify and address inclusion and equality issues. Renewed focus on the learner voice ... Be a platform for advice...