TAV Chapter 22 The Cold War Begins 1945-1960 Chapter 22 Section 1 THE ORIGINS OF THE COLD WAR
Yalta Conference Feb. 1945 Dispute over what to do with the Polish Govt. Polish Govt. had fled to GB when Germany took over.
After the Soviets liberated Poland they set a Communist Govt. Debate over which was the legitimate leaders of Poland FDR and Churchill agreed to recognize the
Soviet based Govt. after Stalin agreed to place some of the prewar leaders in the Govt. Also hold free elections as soon as poss. Declaration of Liberated Europe People choose their Govt.
Temporary Govts. until elections can take place Dividing Germany Germany would be divided into 4 sections Berlin too would be divided into 4 zones also
Romania 2 weeks after Yalta the Soviets forced Romania to set up a Communist Govt. The Soviets wanted to keep Germany weak and insure that they would have a buffer zone
with the countries between the USSR and Germany FDR Dies Truman became takes a strong antiCommunist stand Demands that Poland have free elections
Potsdam Conference July 1945, Truman and Stalin meet near Berlin Agreements made on equipment for food shipments as reparations
Iron Curtain Stalin pronounces that the countries that it occupies will have the economic system that they want. Satellite nations Chapter 22 Section 2
EARLY COLD WAR YEARS The Long Telegram Sent by George Kennan Soviet insecurity
Containment Truman Doctrine Truman pledged to give support to any country that resisted subjugation from outside
forces March 12, 1947, $400 million to aid Turkey and Greece The Marshall Plan George C. Marshall proposed having countries
make plans on how they plan to rebuild their infrastructure and the US would pay for it. Satellite nations were not allowed by the Soviets to take part 11 billion
Its the same thing without the mechanical problems. Berlin Airlift
US, GB, & France decide to issue a common currency & merge their zones of Germany and Berlin. The Soviets decide to block off the routes through the Soviet zone into the western section of Berlin.
From June 1948 to May of 1949 The US dropped in supplies to Berliners who were in the western zones NATO The North Atlantic Treaty Organization
12 countries join and pledge protection to one another 6 years later West Germany was allowed to rearm and join NATO The Soviets react by forming the Warsaw Pact w. the satellite countries
Nuclear Expansion Sept. 1949, the Soviet Union announces that they have successfully detonated a nuclear bomb. Chinese Revolution
Communists led by Mao Zedong overthrew the Nationalists led by Chiang Kai-shek Oct 1949 Chiang is forced to the island of Taiwan US only recognizes Taiwan as China
The Korean War Following WW II, Korea was divided at the 38th parallel Soviets took the north and the US took the south June 25, 1950, N. Korean troops crossed into
the S. UN Action UN troops led by the US were sent to stop the N. Koreans Troops push back from Pusan and Marines
invaded behind enemy lines at Inchon. Pushed back to the Yalu River causing the Chinese to invade to help the N. Koreans Map of Korea during Korean War
Communist Attack Communist Chinese & N. Koreans pushed the UN forces back below the 38th MacArthur wanted to use nuclear bombs against China for entering the war.
Truman wanted to keep it a limited war MacArthur publicly criticized Truman for his approach to the war April 1951, Macarthur was fired for insubordination
Eisenhower Eisenhower runs promising to end the war in Korea July 1953 armistice is signed 33,600 American soldiers were killed SEATO
Southeast Asia Treaty Organization Defensive treaty w. countries Asia Led to aid for France fighting Communists in Vietnam Chapter 22 Section 3
THE COLD WAR & AMERICAN SOCIETY Second Red Scare Sept 1945, Igor Gouzenko defected and
warned of Soviet plans to gain information through people who were in Govt. agencies. Loyalty Program Govt. employees were screened for loyalty to
the US Govt. 2,000 employees quit their jobs 212 people were fired HUAC House Un-American Activities Committee
To investigate Communist and Fascist activities HUAC & Hollywood 1947 hearings were held to investigate Communists in Hollywood Pres. Of the Screen Actors Guild, Ronald
Reagan testified that there were Communists in Hollywood Also stated that Hollywood could police itself US Govt should be strong enough to withstand the internal threat
Alger Hiss 1948, Whittaker Chambers testified that several Govt officials were communists or spies Alger Hiss was identified Denied involvement but evidence was produced
proving accusations were true Charged w. perjury bc statute of limitations had run out for spying. Rosenbergs Julius and Ethel were members of the Communist party and helped ferry top secret nuclear
information to the Soviets. Charged w. espionage and sentenced to death Many thought they were innocent but later the Venona Papers proved they were guilty. Venona was not revealed to the public until 1995. Executed in June 1953
McCarthy Senator from Wisconsin Feb 1950, announced that he had a list of 205 people who were Communists influencing State Dept policy
Soon anyone who did not agree w McCarthy would be accused of being Communist Began looking for Communists in the Army Joseph Welch challenged him & led to his downfall Ch 22 Section 4
EISENHOWERS COLD WAR POLICIES Eisenhower Massive retaliation was the threat of using atomic weapons against our enemies.
Brinkmanship was being willing to push an issue to the point of going to war if needed. Nuclear Threats Eisenhowers veiled threat of using nuclear weapons caused the Chinese and N. Koreans
to sign an armistice Taiwan China threatened that they would take Taiwan & Eisenhower hinted at using nuclear bombs to protect Taiwan
Sec of State Dulles offered to help Egypt construct a dam on the Nile. Egypt had bought weapons from Czechoslovakia and congress did not like it. Offer withdrawn
Suez Crisis Egypt took over the canal which was operated by a British and French company Oct. 1956, GB and France invaded Egypt but the US convinced them to stand down by the US. Egypt began working w the Soviets and soon
other Arab nations did so too. Hungary Riots began in June of 1956 By October the riots had grown to an uprising to change the government.
Khrushchev sent in Soviet tanks to stop the uprising. Sputnik
Launched October 4, 1957 Fellow Traveler Signal for 22 days orbited 3 months
Began the Space Race between the US and the USSR Changed education Iranian Affairs Iran was under the leadership of Mohammed
Mossadegh Nationalized the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company About to enter into a deal with the Soviets There was an attempt to get the Shah of Iran in as the leader but it failed.
CIA set up riots which led to the Shah being established as the leader. Guatemala 1951, Jacob Arbenz Guzman had communist funding and was elected president.
Govt. took over private land including an American owned company-United Fruit Co. May 1954, Czechoslovakia sent arms to Guatemala CIA trained men rose up and caused Guzman to leave office.
U2 Francis Gary Powers flew a U2 spy plane over the Soviet Union on May 1, 1960. Shot down by surface to air missile 15 days before the
summit in Paris was to start. Major strain on US and Soviet relations
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