Pushing the Boundaries of Open Source: The Sakai Project Dr. Charles Severance Executive Director Sakai Foundation [email protected] Sakai in one Slide.... Collaboration, Teaching, and Learning FOSS - 100% free to use, modify and
contribute Sakai is 3 years old Non-profit Sakai Foundation January 2006 Financial support from 100+ Higher Education, 15 companies Six paid staff members 100+ people developing and testing Sakai releases Overview Video: http://www.dr-chuck.com/media.php?id=64 ENTERPRISE SOFTWARE Enterprise Software is software that
solves an enterprise problem rather than a departmental problem. Due to the cost, only large organizations attempt to build software that models the entire business enterprise and is the core system of governing the enterprise and the core of business communications within the enterprise. From: Wikipedia ENTERPRISE SOFTWARE As many business enterprises have similar
departments and systems, enterprise software is often available as a suite of programs that have attached development tools to modify the common programs for the specific enterprise. Mostly these development tools are complex programming tools that require specialist capabilities. Thus, one often sees in job advertisements that a programmer is required to have specific knowledge of a particular set of tools, such as ". . . must be an SAP developer" etc. From: Wikipedia
ENTERPRISE SOFTWARE As many business enterprises have similar departments and systems, enterprise software is often available as a suite of programs that have attached development tools to modify the common programs for the specific enterprise. Mostly these development tools are complex programming tools that require specialist capabilities. Thus, one often sees in job advertisements that a programmer is required to have specific knowledge of a particular set of tools, such as ". . . must be an SAP developer" etc.
From: Wikipedia CRITICISMS Often the term is used to mean virtually anything, by virtue of it having become the latest corporate-speak buzzword. Some enterprise software vendors using the latter definition develop highly complex products that are often overkill for smaller organizations, and the application of these can be a very frustrating task. Thus, sometimes
"enterprise" might be used sarcastically From: Wikipedia to mean overly complex software. TWO APPROACHES TO ENTERPRISE SOURCE. CUBICLE SOURCE A cubicle is a partially enclosed workspace, separated from neighboring workspaces by partitions, generally five to six feet high. The term cubicle comes from the Latin cubiculum,
From: Wikipedia for bed chamber. Cubicle Source Variants Universities buy large proprietary systems and then locally customize the systems to meet local needs. Universities simply write and maintain systems all by themselves themselves.
Cubicle Source Project Plan -5 Budget Planning -3 -1 Customize
0 +1 Decide: Never Upgrade Full Production Rollout Ignore User Requirements Partial Rollout Redo Customizations
Performance Test Hire Consultants Increase Staff Gather Requirements Write Check Attend Vendor
Meetings Hire Consultants Cubicle Source Project Plan +3 Time in Years Relative to Planned Rollout -5
Budget Planning -3 -1 Customize 0 +1 Vendor Drops Support
Decide: Never Upgrade Full Production Rollout Ignore User Requirements Partial Rollout Redo Customizations Performance Test
Hire Consultants Cubicle Source Project Plan +3 +5 CUBICLE SOURCE A cubicle is a partially enclosed workspace, separated from neighboring workspaces by partitions, generally five to six feet high. The term cubicle comes from the Latin cubiculum,
From: Wikipedia for bed chamber. A New Approach to Enterprise Applications Community Source OPEN SOURCE There are many definitions of Open Source Community Source tends follow to Apache Commercial friendly license Developer-centric governance / Meritocracy
Apache has built broad-use utility software Community Source borrows Open Source Cultural approach and values Licensing and governance http://www.dr-chuck.com/media.php COMMUNITY SOURCE Colleges and universities have used the term Community Source to refer to a type of community coordination mechanism that builds
on the practices of open source communities. The Community Source Model is a hybrid model that blends elements of directed development, in the classic sense of an organization employing staff and resources to work on a project, and the openness of traditional self-organizing opensource projects like Apache. From: Wikipedia -12 -6 -3
0 Customize +8 Time in Months Relative to Planned Rollout Shut off Old Product Upgrade, Skip a Version Transition Year
Production Rollout Training Hire Consultants Budget Planning Increase Staff
Gather Requirements Write Check Attend Community Meetings Start Pilot Hire Consultants Community Source (fast)
+18 -3 -2 -1 0 Customize Time in Years Relative to Planned Rollout Shut off Old Product
Upgrade, Skip a Version Transition Year Production Training Reallocate Staff User Requirements
Contribute to Community Gather Big Requirements Install Pilot Server Take a serious look Write Foundation Check Attend Community
Meetings Install Pre-Pilot Community Source Project Plan +1 The need for Commons For community source to work there needs to be an independent external
entity that tends the commons Members of the community who participate in commons may come and go - but the commons must live on independently. There must be a contact point for a new member to find and join the commons. Evolving Approaches to Community Source COMMON THEMES
Open Source / Open License Encourage Commercial Involvement for schools with smaller IT staffs Some formal Commons or Foundation uPortal Mellon-Funded - Uni. Delaware Led Grant-Funded commons (5 years) Unicon Instructional Media and Magic
Conferences - 100-300 people Sustainability Issues Now building the JA-Sig Foundation Jonathan Markow [email protected] Sakai Mellon-Funded - Uni. Michigan Led Borrowed Heavily From uPortal Staff and leadership were Higher-Ed Sakai Partners Program - solve sustainability from the beginning
Sakai was a sprint - we built the bike while we were riding it Conferences 500-700 people 120 100 80 60
10/1/0512/1/05 10/1/0612/1/06 Kuali Financial Services Mellon-Funded - Indiana Uni. Led Improvements Built community slowly - understand the culture Functional Council - Better Predictability Better use of the seconded resource model Differences Versus Sakai
Well-understood problem space - functional experts do exist - and they agree after some discussion Patient adopter base - sees the benefit of doing it right from the beginning. Kuali Research Administration Starting with Kuali governance model Part of the Kuali Foundation Differences from KFS Very common to have local-developed
quirky solution Much more diverse environment funding agencies - legal requirements - Kuali Student Working on Mellon-Funding Led by University of British Columbia Unique Approaches Service Oriented Architecture Multi-Year architecture and use case phase up front Shows the level of belief in the C.S. model that visionary CIOs have
developed Fedora Commons Very mature project Well established in the market place Well established leadership and culture Many years of solid Mellon, NSF, and other funding Long-term sustainability plan Clear commons pattern
Evolution There is a community of communities We learn from each other and evolve Each community will be somewhat different based on stakeholders which make up the community - this is OK We have talked about an ber community - it is a challenging problem http://www.ithaka.org/about-ithaka/announcements/ooss-study-final-report/ An Example Commons The Sakai Foundation
Mission Statement The mission of the Sakai Foundation is to hold ownership of the Sakai software and to guide and nurture the community of activity around the Sakai software. The Sakai Foundation seeks to maximize the positive impact of the Sakai software, technology, and community on teaching and research. Sakai Stakeholders
CIOs and IT Management Contributing Organizations
Adopting Organizations Supporting Organizations All Organizations Deploying IT Staff Technical Support Staff Designers and Developers End Users Teachers, Students, People Production Servers
Members without Servers QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Volunteers Core Sakai 900,000 Lines of Code $13 million dollars investment 53 Volunteer Developers
Contrib 800,000 Lines of Code 47 Volunteer Developers QA Averages 60 people and over volunteer 1000 hours per release See www.ohloh.net Developer Video: http://www.dr-chuck.com/media.php?id=53 Community Flows Sakai Sub Communities
Teaching and Learning Technology Portfolio Implementation User Experience Research Sakai Conference Tracks June 12-14, 2007 Amsterdam, NL
QuickTime and d a TIFF are (Uncompressed) needed to see thi Approaching a C.S. Effort How large is your IT staff? Do you want to innovate or just use? Do you want to truly influence the direction of Sakai?
Levels of C.S. Involvement Top Tier Have 3-8 staff who evolve and customize the product Contribute 20-40% to the common good Join foundation and provide community leadership Mid Tier Have 2-3 staff focused on local issues Contribute patches and fixes Join Foundation to acknowledge value
It is just a product Tier Have 0-1 staff, often local support only Outsource all technical details What Foundation? Top Tier Sakai Members Current Cambridge UK, Michigan, Indiana, Foothill College, Stanford, UC Berkley, Rutgers University, University of Capetown, Virginia Tech, rSmart
Up and coming Charles Sturt University, Oxford UK, University of the Highlands and Islands (Scotland), Boston University, Unicon, Valencia, Uni. Fernando Pessoa, Georgia Tech The Community Effect CIOs have each other on IM Programmers in cubes around the world have each other on IM and speak on first name basis - Yes that is just Stephen
being Stephen It is like a startup company under glass We do all of the things companies do - but transparently - with 1500 people watching A day in the life of a Sakai ant A day in the life of a Sakai ant
Dr. Chuck A day in the life of a Sakai ant Dr. Chuck A day in the life of a Sakai ant
Dr. Chuck A day in the life of a Sakai ant Dr. Chuck A day in the life of a Sakai ant
Dr. Chuck SUMMARY Enterprise Software is a different animal Many different use cases and users A kit of capabilities Customization / Localization is the norm Community Source Shortens the distance between user requirements and developer keyboards
Participating allows customization to become part of the product - not just local CONCLUSION Why community? Share Risk Control Destiny
Open Communication - success and failure Save money - sure one of these days Dont just think LMS / Sakai Think financial systems, student systems, library systems - things that really cost money. Thank you for your time www.sakaiproject.org [email protected] www.dr-chuck.com
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