Early Civilizations Early Man Early Humans What we

Early Civilizations Early Man Early Humans What we

Early Civilizations Early Man Early Humans What we know about the earliest people comes from the things they left behind. Archaeologists hunt for evidence

buried in the ground Artifacts - weapons, tools, and other things made by humans Fossils - traces of plants or animals

Anthropologists - focus on human society (how they developed and how they related to one another. B.C. and A.D. B.C. --- Before Christ A.D. --- Latin words Anno Domini and means the year of our Lord. B.C. is the time period before Christ and you count backwards from A.D.

1. *-------------*-------------*--------------*-------------*--------------*---------------* 3 B.C. 2 B.C. 1 B.C. A.D. 1 A.D. 2 A.D. 3 A.D. 4

Common Mistake: Many people refer to A.D. and after death which is not accurate. This is not accurate because it does not account for the years that Christ was alive on Earth. B.C. and A.D. are western and Christian oriented. Some people prefer the terms to be neutral to all global regions and religions. Instead people around the world use the abbreviations B.C.E. (Before the Common Era) and C.E. (Common Era).

Primary and Secondary sources Differences? Primary Sources Secondary Sources

ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS (excerpts or translations acceptable): Diaries, speeches, manuscripts, letters, interviews, news film footage, autobiographies, official records CREATIVE WORKS: Poetry,

drama, novels, music, art RELICS OR ARTIFACTS: Pottery, furniture, clothing, buildings PUBLICATIONS: Textbooks, magazine articles, histories, criticisms, commentaries, encyclopedias

interprets and analyzes primary sources Examples: Primary Sources Diary of Anne Frank Experiences of a Jewish family during WWII The Constitution of Canada Canadian History

A journal article reporting NEW research or findings Weavings and pottery - Native American history Plato's Republic - Women in Ancient Greece Secondary Sources

A journal/magazine article which interprets or reviews previous findings A history textbook A book about the effects of WWI Primary or Secondary?

Paleolithic or Old Stone Age Paleolithic means old stone in the Greek language. Roughly 2.5 million years ago around 8000 B.C. Hunters-Gatherers

Nomads Traveled in bands of 30 or more and camped near streams or another water source (Why?) Men hunted Clubs or drove off cliffs Invented spears, traps, and bows/arrows

Women looked after children, searched for berries, nuts, and grains Adapting to the Environment Climate clothing/protection Caves Fire

Ice Ages Long periods of extreme cold Last Ice Age was from 100,000 B.C. 8000 B.C. Advancements Development of the spoken language How did they express themselves prior to this? Paintings religious meaning? (brought good

luck for the hunt) Taming of fire Technology flint used to make tools axes and spears; skilled tools fishhooks and needles (animal bones) Lascaux Cave in Dordogne, France discovered in 1940 by 4 teenage boys

What does this tell us about life in the Paleolithic Age? Primary or Secondary Source?

Neolithic or New Stone Age 8000 4000 B.C. People started farming, building communities, producing goods, and trading.

Why was farming important? Farming revolution tzi the Icemantzi the Iceman Discovered in 1991 Named tzi aftertzi after

the tzi aftertztal Alps where he was found Earliest Villages atal Hyk 8000 B.C.

atal Hyk Mud- brick homes packed tightly together and decorated inside with wall paintings Spaces between were used as a garbage dump Buried dead below floor of house

Babies buried wearing jewelry Benefits of a Settled Life Greater security Steady food supplies healthy, growing populations more workers to produce a bigger crop

Surplus trade/barter Specialization (i.e. pottery, weaving) Advancements

Better farming tools sickle Domestication of animals Worked with metals (copper) After 4000 B.C., craftspeople in western Asia mixed copper and tin to form bronze, which was widely used. Bronze was harder and longer lasting.

Hence, the Bronze Age from 3000 B.C. and 1200 B.C. The Neolithic Revolution Effects of Farming Migration of Man

Paleolithic Age Art and Crafts How Humans Obtained Food How Humans adapted

Work of Men and Women Neolithic Age Paleolithic Age Neolithic Age

Art and Crafts Painted cave walls (usually Made pottery and carved animals) objects our of wood; built shelters and tombs

How Humans Obtained Food Hunters and gatherers Farmed in permanent villages, raised and herd animals

How Humans adapted Learned to make fire, created a language, and made simple tools and shelters

Built mud-brick houses and places of worship, specialized in certain jobs, used copper/bronze to create more useful tools Work of Men and Women Women gathered food

and cared for children. Men hunted. Women cared for children and performed household tasks. Men herded, farmed, and protected the village.

Review Questions Questions 1. Who are archaeologists and what do they study? 2. How did domesticating animals help with the Neolithic people?

3. Why were Paleolithic people nomads? 4. Why was the ability to make a fire so important? 5. Complete the chart Cause:

Farming begins GEOGRAPHY influenced the development of river valley civilizations. Early River Valley Civilizations

Sumer Egypt Indus Valley China

Flooding of Tigris and Euphrates unpredictable No natural barriers Limited natural resources for making tools or buildings Flooding of the Nile predictable Nile an easy transportation link between Egypts villages Deserts were natural barriers Indus flooding unpredictable

Monsoon winds Mountains, deserts were natural barriers Huang He flooding unpredictable Mountains, deserts natural barriers Geographically isolated from other ancient civilizations Why were River Valleys important?

Good farming conditions made it easy to feed larger #s of people. Provided fish and freshwater Travel and trade Ancient Mesopotamia Civilizations

Civilizations are complex societies that have cities, organized governments, art, religion, class divisions, and a writing system. Into what body of water does the Tigris and the Euphrates Rivers flow?

Why do you think the region of Mesopotamia was so well suited for the growth of civilization? Mesopotamia ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA (4000 B.C.) land in between the rivers

Why was this a perfect place for the 1st civilization? 1. Fertile Crescent - large arc of fertile land in the Middle East 2. Tigris & Euphrates Rivers made it possible for farming 3. Cattle, pigs, goats & sheep were accessible What was it like?

Hot, dry climate Spring rivers often flooded (not always) destroying crops, homes, etc. Farmers believed they needed their gods to bless their efforts. Irrigation Some areas were marshy. Vulnerable to attack and invasion

Mesopotamia Fertile Crescent Sumer The Earliest of the River Valley Civilizations Sumerian Civilization grew up along the Tigris and

Euphrates Rivers in what is now Kuwait. City-states Their own govt Often went to war with each other To gain glory and to control more territory

Protection = wall made of river mud Ziggurat mountain of god hill of heaven or

Ziggurat The area around the ziggurat contained palaces and royal storehouses.

The surrounding walls had only one entrance because the ziggurat also served as the

citys treasury. At the top was a shrine or a special place of worship that only the priests and priestesses could enter.

Social Classes Upper class Kings, priests, and govt officials Kings lived in palaces. Middle class Artisans, merchants, farmers, and fishers Lived in small mud-brick houses

Lower class Enslaved people who worked on farms or in the temples. Roles of Men and Women Men Headed the households Only ones that could go to school

Women Had some rights Could buy and sell property and run businesses Mesopotamia cradle of civilization

Sumerians left a lasting mark on world history. Their ideas and inventions were copied and improved upon by other people. Sumerian Writing: cuneiform Developed to keep

track of business deals and other events. Sumerian language

Sumerian Literature Oldest known story comes from Sumer. Epic of Gilgamesh Advances in Science and Math Irrigation systems Used geometry to

measure fields and put up buildings Created a number system based on 60 Watched skies to learn the best times to plant crops and hold religious

festivals Recorded positions of planets and stars Developed a 12 month calendar based on the cycles of the moon Sumerian city-states lost power

when they were conquered by outsiders. Akkadians Babylonia Hammurabi

Best known for his law code or collection of laws Hammurabi Code If a man stole the property of church or state, that man shall be put to death; also the one who received the stolen goods from his hand shall be put to

death. The laws governed such things as lying, stealing, assault, debt, business partnerships, marriage, and divorce. In seeking protection for all members of

Babylonian society, Hammurabi relied on the philosophy of equal retaliation, otherwise known as an eye for an eye. Hammurabis Code His intention was to bring about the rule of

righteousness in the land, to destroy the wicked and evildoers, so that the strong should not harm the weak. . . Those that thought they were fair for the following reasons: Brought order and justice to society Regulated many different activities Stated what all people needed to know about the rules of their society.

Hammurabis Code Law 5: If a judge makes an error through his own fault when trying a case, he must pay a fine, be removed form the judges bench, and never judge another case. Law 122: If someone gives something to someone else for safekeeping, the transaction should be witnessed and a contract made between the two parties. Law 233: If a contractor builds a house for someone

and the walls start to fall, then the builder must use his own money and labor to make the walls secure. Hammurabis Code Some thought that these laws were cruel and unjust. Called for violent punishments, often death, for nonviolent crimes

Required different punishments for accused persons of different social classes Allowed no explanation from an accused person Hammurabis Code Law 3: If someone falsely accuses someone else of certain crimes, then he shall be put to death. Law 22: If someone is caught in the act of robbery,

then he shall be put to death. Law 195: If a son strikes his father, the sons hands shall be cut off. Law 202: If someone strikes a man of higher rank, then he shall be whipped 60 times in public. BABYLONIAN ZIGGURAT

THE MANY PEOPLE OF MESOPOTAMIA: 1. Sumerians (ancient Sumers citystates) (3000 B.C. - 1800 B.C.) 2. Babylonians (Babylonian Empire) ( 1800 B.C. - 1200 B.C. 3. Assyrians (Assyrian Empire)

(1200 B.C. - 539 B.C.) 4. Persians (Persian Empire) (539 B.C. - 330 B.C.) Review 1. What is a civilization? 2. What was the Code of Hammurabi? 3. How was the geography of Mesopotamia

suited for the growth of population and creation of a civilization? 4. Why did the Sumerian record the positions of the stars and planets and develop a calendar? Achievements of Mesopotamian Civilization

The First Empires Assyrians and Chaldeans The Assyrian Empire The Assyrian Defense Large, well-organized army

Foot soldiers armed with spears and daggers Experts with bows and arrows Chariot riders and a cavalry 1st army to use iron weapons Techniques in war Burn crops, destroy dams, cut down trees

Tunneled under walls or climbed over them using ladders Battering rams A stone carving of the Assyrians conquering an Egyptian town in their war on Egypt. A well-organized govt Divided into provinces

Roads joined all parts of the empire A drawing of the Assyrian capitol of Nineveh. The ruins of Nineveh. Life in Assyria

Writing gods More brutal/cruel punishments

Literature Temples and palaces The Chaldeans Captured Nineveh in 612 B.C. King Nebuchadnezzar Controlled all of Mesopotamia from 605 to 562 B.C.

Nineveh under siege by the Babylonians and Medes. Babylon

Worlds largest and richest city Brick wall Center large palaces and temples Hanging gardens, one of the seven wonders of the ancient world Babylon

Outside the center was houses and marketplaces. Trade Center of science Conquered by the Persians Review

1. Why was the Assyrian army a powerful fighting force? 2. What were some of the accomplishments of Chaldean astronomers? 3. How did the Assyrians set up a wellorganized govt? 4. Why do you think the Assyrians took conquered peoples from their lands and moved them to other places?

Review 5. What different types of knowledge and skills would the Babylonians need to build the Hanging Gardens? 6. Describe the beauty of ancient Babylon.

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