Chapter 2: Section 2 Vocabulary Key Terms market:

Chapter 2: Section 2 Vocabulary Key Terms  market:

Chapter 2: Section 2 Vocabulary Key Terms market: any arrangement that allows buyers and sellers to exchange things specialization: the concentration of the productive efforts of individuals and businesses on a limited number of activities free market economy: an economic system in which decisions on the three key economic questions are based on the voluntary exchange in markets household: a person or group living in a single residence

Chapter 2, Section 2: Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 2 Key Terms, cont. firm: an organization that uses resources to produce a product or service, which it then sells factor market: the arena of exchange in which firms purchase the factors of production from households product market: the arena of exchange in which households purchase goods and services from firms

self-interest: an individuals own personal gain Chapter 2, Section 2: Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 3 Key Terms, cont. incentive: the hope of reward or fear of penalty that encourages a person to behave a certain way competition: the struggle among producers for the dollars of consumers invisible hand: a term coined by Adam Smith to

describe the self-regulating nature of the marketplace consumer sovereignty: the powers of consumers to decide what gets produced Chapter 2, Section 2: Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 4 Chapter 2: Section 2 The Free Market The Guiding Question As you listen, keep in mind the guiding

question What are the characteristics of a free market economy? Chapter 2, Section 2: Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 6 Specialization No one can produce everything we need and want instead each of us specializes in a few products or services Specializations is when people and

businesses do only what they are best at Markets provide buyers and sellers with a place to exchange their goods and services Chapter 2, Section 2: Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 7 Self Interest Markets work because of self interest and competition Self interest means buyers and sellers focus on their own personal gain

An incentive is hope of personal gain or fear of penalty that pushes people to act in a certain way Chapter 2, Section 2: Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 8 Competition Competition is the struggle between firms or individuals to sell a good or service Self interest and completion work together to regulate or control the market place

This process is sometimes called the invisible hand of the market place Chapter 2, Section 2: Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 9 Free Market Economy A free market economy is an economic system based on voluntary exchanges in markets A voluntary exchange is a transfer that households and firms make willingly

A household is a person or group of living in the same place A firm is a business that uses resources to produce a product or service Chapter 2, Section 2: Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 10 Circular Flow Model The circular flow model the exchanges between households and firms The factor market and the product market are the two main parts of the free market

Chapter 2, Section 2: Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 11 Factor and Product Market In the factor market, firms purchase land, labor, and capital the factors of production from households In the product market, households purchase goods and services produced by firms The free market encourages efficiency,

economic freedom, innovation, and growth Chapter 2, Section 2: Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 12 Consumer Sovereignty Consumers have the ability to decide what products get made - consumer sovereignty However, two other economic goals security and equity are hard to achieve in a pure market system

Chapter 2, Section 2: Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 13 The Guiding Question Using what you have learned, ask yourself the guiding question again What are the characteristics of a free market economy? Chapter 2, Section 2: Copyright Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 14 Objectives 1. Explain why markets exist. 2. Analyze a circular flow model of a free market economy. 3. Describe the self-regulating nature of the marketplace. 4. Identify the advantages of a free market economy. Chapter 2, Section 2: Copyright Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 15 Introduction What are the characteristics of a free market economy? A free market economy is characterized by: Households and firms Factor and product markets Self-interest Competition Economic freedom, efficiency, and equity Chapter 2, Section 2:

Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 16 The Purpose of Markets Checkpoint: Why do markets exist? Markets, like a farmers market, a sporting goods store, and the New York Stock Exchange, eliminate the need for any one person to be self-sufficient. Markets allow us to exchange the things we have for the things we want. Chapter 2, Section 2: Copyright Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 17 Specialization Rather than being self-sufficient, each of us specializes in a few products or services. Specialization leads to efficient use of land, labor, and capital. Specialization allows businesses to focus on a limited number of related products or services. Because of specialization, markets are needed to give people an arena with which to sell their products and to buy products that they dont produce themselves but need.

Chapter 2, Section 2: Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 18 Free Market Economy In a free market, answers to the three key economic questions are made by voluntary exchange in the marketplace. Choices made by individuals determine what gets made, how it is made, and how much people can consume of the goods and services produced. In a free market system, individuals and

privately owned businesses own the factors of production. Chapter 2, Section 2: Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 19 Circular Flow Model of a Market Economy Chapter 2, Section 2: Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 20

Factor and Product Markets In an arena of exchange known as the factor market, firms purchase factors of production, such as renting land, hiring and paying workers, and borrowing money, from households. The arena in which households buy the goods and services that firms produce is called the product market. Chapter 2, Section 2: Copyright Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 21 Self-Regulation In The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith observes that in the countless transactions that occur in the market, the buyer and seller consider only their self-interest. Self-interest is the motivating force in the free market. Consumers pursuing their self-interest have the incentive to look for lower prices. Chapter 2, Section 2: Copyright Pearson Education, Inc.

Slide 22 Self-Regulation, cont. According to Smith, consumers will respond to the positive incentive of lower prices by buying more goods because spending less money on a good lowers the opportunity cost of the purchase. Chapter 2, Section 2:

Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 23 What are Incentives? Chapter 2, Section 2: Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 24 Competition Checkpoint: Why is competition important

to the free market? Firms seek to make higher profits by increasing sales Because of competition among other firms, however, increasing sales is not always possible Self-interest and competition work together to regulate the marketplace. Smith called this self-regulating mechanism of the market the invisible hand Chapter 2, Section 2: Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 25

Advantages of a Free Market Under ideal conditions, free market economies meet the following economic goals: They respond to rapidly changing conditions. They have a large degree of economic freedom. They encourage economic growth. They lend themselves to consumer sovereignty.

Chapter 2, Section 2: What free market principle does this cartoon illustrate? Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 26 Advantages, cont. Despite the advantages of a free market economy, no country today operates under a pure, unregulated free market. Chapter 2, Section 2:

Copyright Pearson Education, Inc. Slide 27

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