The Cold War War Time Diplomacy Yalta Conference (Feb 1945) Plan for post war world April, 1945 FDR is dead, Truman is left in the dark Potsdam Declaration (July 1945) Economic effects of WWII War time production pulls
the US out of depression Employment Employment Act of 1946 GI Bill of Rights Taft-Hartley Act - 1947 Outlawed unfair labor practices Election of 1948 Harry Truman democrat
Ran an aggressive campaign Whistle Stops short speeches in train stop towns - 2 cross-country trips Thomas Dewey republican Aristocrat, not aggressive, well-educated, good speakerbelieved he had the Presidency in the bag
Strom Thurmond Dixiecrat Keep the south segregated.states rights Containment Theory by George Kennan - diplomat US policy around the globe: let communism exist where it currently resides, but do not allow the expansion of communism Containment Policies Under
Truman Truman Doctrine - 1947 Marshall Plan 1947 NATO 1949 - North Atlantic Treaty Organization Warsaw pact - 1955 Berlin Airlift 1947 Korean War 1950-1953 McArthur is relieved from command - 1951 Red Scare II
Executive Order 9835 House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) 1947 Hollywood Ten McCarran Committee
Alger Hiss - 1950 Alger Hiss High appointments in State Department, friend of FDR Accused of being a communist Hiss denies, but evidence shows validity to accusations Any documents he may have stolen were meaningless People feared infiltration into government Rosenbergs Klaus Fuchs physicist
that worked on Manhattan Project sold nuclear technology to Soviets Captured by British Julius and Ethyl Rosenberg Americans implicated in this spy ring - 1951 They were sent to the chair Soviets detonate first Abomb in 1949 Joe McCarthy Senator, Wisconsin
Chairman of the Government Appropriations Committee Loved the spotlight Claimed to have names of communists in the State Department no evidence Army McCarthy Hearings People began to view him as a bully and simpleton Eisenhower Presidency Ike gets us out of Korea war had
stagnated - signed a truce in 1953 Interstate Highway Act 1956 John Foster Dulles Sec of State rollback Eisenhower disagreed U2 spy plane shot down May 1960 Gary Powers Central Intelligence Agency During WWII there was army intel, navy intel,
strategic intel, the FBI. This was consolidated after the war into the CIA Ike used them aggressively to topple governments that were a threat to US security Iran 1953 Guatemala 1954 Jacabo Arbenz y Guzman thought to be a commie
CIA led overthrow Pro-American dictator takes over General Castillo Armas Space Race Space Race who will get to the moon first? What advantage does this provide in the Cold War? Sputnik 1957 NASA 1958 - National Aeronautics and Space Act NDEA 1958 - National Defense Education Act
Soviets send first man into space Yuri Gagarin 1961 US puts men on the moon in 1969 Neil Armstrong Civilian Defense Against Nuclear Attacks Duck and Cover Crawl beneath a desk, assume fetal position, cover head Most believed it wouldnt do much
good Fallout Shelters (bomb shelters) Designated areas where people could take shelter from radioactive fallout Vietnam in the 50s French colony Ho Chi Minh wanted to nationalize Vietnam French puppet ruler named Bao Dai Dien Bien Phu French lose America was funding the French efforts Feared Domino Effect in SE Asia
1954 Geneva Peace Conference America maintains an economic and advisory role in Vietnam JFK - The Cold Warrior Get America Moving Again Peace Corps 1961 Bay of Pigs Invasion April 1961 Castro took power in overthrow of pro-US government 1959 Fulgencio Batista
Began seizing US interests on island Berlin Wall Aug, 1961 Nov 1989 East and West Berlin - 1961 Cuban Missile Crisis Oct 1962 U2 plane photographs missile sites Kennedy establishes naval quarantine Soviets call this a prelude to war
Plans in motion for invasion of Cuba DEFCON 2 (highest alert in US History) Soviet ships approach, but slow down Soviets send two offers, which confuse the Americans One to promise to never invade Cuba, the other added the removal of missiles from Turkey Soviets shoot down US spy plane, but
JFK resists military action JFK and Khrushchev work out a deal to remove missile from Cuba Wake of Cuban Missile Crisis Limited Test Ban Treaty July 1963 outlawed nuclear testing in atmosphere, outer space, or underwater New communication lines Had slow telegraph + encryption Added hotline
Vietnam & LBJ Vietnam escalates in 1964 Gulf of Tonkin Resolution Operation Rolling Thunder Sent 165,000 troops to
Vietnam in 1965 431,000 by mid 66 Wheres the enemy? Tet Offensive 1968 Mai Lai Massacre Richard Nixon - Vietnam Nixon ramps up Vietnam before cooling it down peace with honor Invasion of Cambodia Protests back home (Kent State) Vietnamization
Cease fire in Jan 1973 (Paris Peace Agreement) 58,000 dead War Powers Act 1973 Richard Nixon - Detente Dtente - A lessening of tensions Beginning with the Nonproliferation Treaty and SALT I and ending when Russia invades Afghanistan Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) May 1972 Nixon is the first president to visit both
Russia and China End of Vietnam Jimmy Carter Camp David Accords SALT II US Boycotts Moscow Olympiad Iranian Hostage Crisis 1979 Ronald Reagan & the Cold War Sharp increase in defense budget
New Missiles (MX missiles) B1 Bombers (long range) SDI (Strategic Defense Initiative) Fear: US might prevail in a nuclear showdown Changed rhetoric from dtente to The Evil Empire Peace through strength
Iran-Contra Sandinistas - Socialists US believed they were shipping arms to El Salvador to help with the overthrow of a rightwing government there In 1981 CIA began to arm the Contras In 1984 - Boland Amendment From 1984-86, the administration funded the Contras with outside aid and weapons sales Iran and Iraq at war Weapons sales to Iran in exchange for Irans help in freeing seven American hostages in Lebanon
Gorbachev & Reagan In 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev selected as general secretary. Glasnost Perestroika Wants to work to improve relations Strong diplomacy Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall! Gradual collapse of the Iron Curtain Berlin Wall comes down in 1989
No President reduced nukes like Ronald Reagan Intermediate Nuclear Force Agreement START I Soviet states began to call for sovereignty Ukraine, Latvia, Belarus, etc Impact of the Cold War American film critical, satirical, prophetic, but always articulating the fear Stanley Kubrics Dr. Strangelove: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb
The Day After Terminator War Games Music Land of Confusion Genesis Russians - Sting
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