Viruses and Prokaryotes - Vigo County School Corporation
Viruses and Prokaryotes Chapter 18 Studying Viruses and Prokaryotes Virus an infectious agent made up of a core of nucleic acid and a protein coat. Pathogen any living infectious disease causing agent Studying Viruses and Prokaryotes Virus Only
Bacteria reproduce in host DNA/RNA Cannot Grow Cannot use energy Cannot respond to stimuli CAN change over time Independent reproduction (sexual/asexual) DNA Grows and
develops Uses energy for processes Responds to the environment Changes over time Studying Viruses and Prokaryotes Viroids Infectious particles that cause disease in plants Single stranded RNA without protein coat Passed through seeds or pollen
Major agricultural impact Prions Infectious particle made only of proteins Causes proteins not to fold properly Play a role in some diseases of the brain Ex. Mad Cow Disease
Viral Structure and Reproduction Discovery Dmitri Ivanovsky - small bacteria or poisons virus Tobacco mosaic disease Martinus Beijerinck later suggested the cause of the disease was from particles in the juice
Showed the disease agent passed through gel Tiny particles in the substance caused the disease Virus Latin for poison Viral Structure and Reproduction Simple structure Virion single virus particle
Shape determines infection Capsid viruses protein coat Contains either DNA or RNA In some viruses, protein coat surrounded by lipids Can form spikes used for attachment Used for identificationEnveloped, Helical, Polyhedral Viral Structure and Reproduction
Viruses can infect bacteria Bacteriophage Release enzymes that break down the bacterial cell wall Injects its DNA into the bacteria Viruses infecting eukaryotes
My enter by endocytosis Also can enter if in envelope Ex. HIV Viral Structure and Reproduction Two main modes of infection by viruses Virus binds to cell Tricks cell into taking in DNA DNA either becomes copied or kills the
cell Viral Structure and Reproduction Lytic Cycle the viral replication process that rapidly kills a host cell. Viral DNA enters cell and takes over Turns on genes to make more viruses Viral enzymes break down the host cell membrane and new viruses released Lyses
apart means to break Viral Structure and Reproduction Lysogenic Cycle type of replication in which a virus does not immediately kill a host cell Viral DNA combines with host DNA - prophage Prophage is copied during mitosis and passed on to daughter cell Two paths remain a permanent part of the cell OR become lytic Viral Diseases Defense against
infectious disease First defense Skin Viruses can enter only through openings nose, mouth, eyes, ears, etc. Once at the cell, the virus uses triggers to trick the cell in to allowing the virus in Viral Diseases Viral Diseases
Common cold 200 different viruses Mutates easily Influenza Prominent in winter Easily spread epidemic 3 subtypes infect humans Highly mutatable new vaccine each year SARS Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Recent viral infection Similar to influenza
HIV Retrovirus uses RNA instead of DNA Lysogenic infection Becomes a lytic infection when active Infects WBC which leads to AIDS Highly mutatable Viral Diseases Vaccine Preparation of a weakened or killed pathogen Prompts the body to form immunity Ex.
When MMR, Chickenpox, Hepatitis, Menigitis the virus returns again, the body is prepared Bacteria and Archaea Microorgansims everywhere Smallest are are prokaryotes Range in size 1 5 micrometers There are roughly 1 billion
types of bacteria and 1030 individual prokaryotes above, on, and in the earths surface Bacteria and Archaea Identification of Prokaryotes Shape Chemical nature of cell wall Movement Obtaining of energy Bacteria and Archaea Respiration Obligate aerobes breathes oxygen
Obligate anaerobes does not breathe oxygen Facultative anaerobes dont need oxygen, but are not harmed by it Bacteria and Archaea Structural Comparisons Archaea and bacteria appear very similiar Cell walls, single celled DNA is in the form of a plasmid Some
are non-motile Others: Whiplike movement with a flagellum or cillia Bacteria and Archaea Cell shape Cocci spheres Bacilli rods Spirilla spirals
Bacteria and Archaea Cell wall composition Gram positive retain initial stain easily (violet) Gram negative much thinner cell wall; doesnt retain initial stain (pink) Bacteria and Archaea Nutrition Heterotrophs obtain energy
- eat to Chemoheterotrophs take in carbon Autotrophs own food must - make their Bacteria and Archaea Growth Binary Fission replicate DNA and divide Conjugation exchange of genetic information through a pilli Endospores thick portion of cytoplasm enclosing the DNA
Beneficial Roles of Prokaryotes Prokayotes provide nutrients Key part of the digestive system of animals Decomposers Symbiosis - both members benefit (Ex. Plants and bacteria for nitrogen) Fermentation Diseases Lyme disease
Cholera Tetanus Toxic Strep Prokaryote Roles in Ecosystems Cyanobacteria Produce much of the oxygen we breath Bioremediation
Using bacteria to remove pollutants Ex. Oil spills, biodegradeable materials Bacterial Diseases and Antibiotics Two ways bacteria infect Damage cells and tissue Release toxins
throughout body Bacterial Diseases and Antibiotics Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Destroys cells in the lungs Streptococcus and Clostiridium botulinum Strep throat Food poisoning Corynebacterium
diptheriae Diptheria Bacterial Diseases and Antibiotics Antibiotics Block growth and reproduction of bacteria Major reason for increase in human expectancy Also prime example of evolution MRSA
Evolution results from overuse, underuse, and misuse
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