Zooming in on MySpace (and teen social networking)
Online Safety 3.0 Empowering and Protecting Youth Larry Magid Co-director ConnectSafely.org Founder SafeKids.com & SafeTeens.com Presentation online @ www.SafeKids.com/mommy.ppt Web 1.0
On Web 2.0... ...everybody knows youre a dog. --Michael Kinsley, Slate.com, 11/27/06 Modeling matters Cute, but is it healthy? Is this a good thing? Kids 5-7
1 in 10 has a mobile phone Half have a TV in bedroom 85% have access to game consoles Based on study of UK children Source: UK Media regulator Ofcom as reported in Daily Mail Children and screen time The American Academy of Pediatrics advises
no more than 1 to 2 hours per day of total screen time for children older than 2 (and zero screen time for children under 2) That advice is a bit out of date considering the kids now have their screens in their pockets Still, its a good idea to get your kids to unplug now and then. Distracting preschoolers from screens 1.
2. 3. 4. Provide distractions. Diversions work well for this age group -- and preschoolers love to help out. At dinner time, instead of busying them with the TV while you cook, ask them to sort all your pots and pans from biggest to smallest. Practice togetherness. What kids this age need is a close, loving relationship with an active, involved caregiver. It's actually OK to do nothing but count dust bunnies, as long as you're together. Do activities. Find a book of rainy-day activities that use household objects for
easy little projects you can set up (and clean up!) easily. Be physically active: Outdoor or even indoor activities that keep them physically active are good for your child's physical and mental health & yours too. Source: Items 1 to 3 from Common Sense Media Elementary and middle school 1. 2.
3. 4. 5. Delegate chores. Working parents can feel guilty asking kids to do chores, but it's actually really good for them -- and it helps you, too. Just remember to keep them manageable. Schedule play dates. If kids are going to use the computer or game console, invite a friend (or two) and make it social. That removes the isolating aspect of gaming, which can lead to game addiction, loss of empathy, and social withdrawal.
Grant privileges. Use screen time as a goal that kids have to work for. Encourage creativity. If kids start exploring digital arts, encourage some of the off-line aspects, like drawing, sketching scenes, writing, costume design, etc. Talk with them about the safe use of the technology Source: Items 1 to 4 from Common Sense Media Safety by age 2-4 Lapware: Parents should be present 4-7 Begin to explore on own, parents close by 7-10
Looking for independence, some peer pressure, check in often 10-12 Social use of net, manage independence 12-14 High social use, privacy concerns, exploring sexuality 14-17 Physical & emotional maturity, more likely risk behavior, need to master self control Source: GetNetWise.org Safety by Age by Larry Magid
Online Safety 1.0 & 2.0 In both cases, it was children as victims 1.0 Pornography & predators: Protecting children from bad adults. Children as consumers of information, not as creators and based on assumptions of risk, not actual research 2.0 Recognizing that kids can create content harm other kids and themselves. Protecting children from cyberbullying & posting inappropriate or dangerous content What is Online Safety
3.0? Research-based, not fear-based, so relevant Flexible, layered not one-size-fits-all Respectful of youth agency stakeholders in positive outcomes, not just potential victims Positive, empowering: Not just safety from (bad outcomes) but safety for good outcomes Full, constructive participation in participatory society Its not just about safety, its also about fun & learning
Would you take your child to a playground simply because it was safe? Learning shouldnt be all work and no play Cartoon from Boston Globe article Pressure-cooker kindergarten (tinyurl.com/l39jsr) Virtual worlds & learning
Global VW population: 186m now, 640m by 2015 (appx 25% annual growth rate) Strategy. Analytics/09 5-9-year-olds will be biggest growth sector at 27% growth 50m to 209.9m 10-17-year-olds at 21% 125m-395m Adults will triple 11.5m-32.5m In 2008, VCs invested $590m in VWs Global virtual goods market is $5 billion Virtual worlds & future of education Eventually virtual worlds will permeate into every
aspect of education. They (virtual worlds and education) will be one - inseparable, impossible to distinguish or differentiate Classes, from kindergarten to college, will be able to go inside a whale's stomach or visit ancient Rome, even design entire cities. The possibilities are endless and available. (Source:horizonproject.wikispaces.com/) Virtual worlds and young children
Can aid development of social, linguistic & tech skills Can encourage creative expression & identity exploration Look for parental controls & limits on chat How does the world handle abusive behavior such as name calling, mean comments, etc Beware of crass commercialism A good time to teach critical thinking skills Some of these issues will be
explored in an upcoming issue of Journal of Virtual Worlds Research 64% of online teens create content Blog Post photos Post video
Source: Pew Internet & American Life - 12/07 Online socializing reflects real life 75% of teens use social sites now (15.5m), 79% in 2013 (17.9m)eMarketer/09 91% use social sites to stay in touch with friends they see frequently (usually school-related). 82% to socialize with friends they rarely see in person (distant friends). 72% to make plans with friends.
49% to make new friends. 17% to flirt. Source: Pew Internet & American Life survey January 2007 2 types of social networking ...on all devices, fixed and mobile: Friendship-driven (84% of 15-25 YOs in a qualitative study at Harvard School of Education)
Interest-driven (80% involved in at least one such online community) Source: Digital Youth Project, November 2008 Mobile social tools Todays phones are mobile computers with... Mobile social networking
Photo- & video-sharing Web browsing 24/7 texting Even less adult supervision GPS & social mapping Mobile phones will be the worlds primary tool for connecting to the Net by 2020. Teens lives saved, thanks to social-network sites
Plan To 'Shoot Up' School Foiled Jan 12, 2009: Deputies in Transylvania County [N.C] said they got a call from a sheriffs office in New York. A teenager there apparently came forward and said she met a 15-year-old on MySpace who said he had a dangerous plan. Facebook friend saves life of suicidal teenager from the other side of the Atlantic UKs Daily Mail, 4/5/09 What are they doing in there? Good or normative
Social producing Learning social rules Designing profiles (selfexpression) Exploring identity Writing blogs Writing software code Sharing/producing music Producing & editing videos Discussing interests Social/political activism
Keeping in touch with friends long-term Risk assessment What else are they doing in there? Neutral or negative Seeking validation Competing in a popularity contest Venting Showing off
Embarrassing self Damaging reputation Pulling pranks Getting even Threatening Harassing Bullying What we worry about Predation
Viewing inappropriate content Posting inappropriate content Misuse of childs image Cyberbullying & harassment Online addiction Online contributing to destructive, illegal or inappropriate behavior Types of Online Safety Physical safety freedom from physical harm Psychological safety freedom from cruelty, harassment, and exposure to potentially disturbing
material Reputational and legal safety freedom from unwanted social, academic, professional, and legal consequences that could affect you for a lifetime Identity, property, and community safety freedom from theft of identity and property Source: Online Safety 3.0 (items 1 to 3 courtesy Anne Collier) Physical safety: Freedom from physical harm
Youve seen the headlines Question: What proportion of teens have been approached online by a predator? A. B. C. D. E.
1 in 20 1 in 10 1 in 7 1 in 5 Almost half Its a trick question What the 2000 and 2005 surveys actually asked 1. In the past year, did anyone on the Internet ask you for
sexual information about yourself when you did not want to answer such questions? 2. In the past year, did anyone on the Internet ever try to get you to talk online about sex when you did not want to? 3. In the past year, did anyone on the Internet ever ask you to do something sexual that you did not want to do Not necessarily online predators 1. Solicitations not necessarily from online predators. They were all unwanted online requests to youth to talk about sex,
answer personal questions about sex or do something sexual. But many could have been from other youth. 2. Solicitations not necessarily devious or intended to lure. 3. Most did not view the solicitations as serious or threatening 4. Almost all handled unwanted solicitations easily and effectively. Most reacted by blocking or ignoring solicitors, leaving sites, or telling solicitors to stop. 5. Extremely few youth (only 2) were actually sexually victimized by someone they met online. The surveys found
No solicitations in 2000 study led to physical contact. Only 2 in 2005 did. Risk is statistically so rare, it cant be estimated. - CACRC Online predators and young children Internet predators don't hit on the prepubescent children whom pedophiles target. They target adolescents, who have more access to computers, more privacy and more interest in sex and romance. Janice Wolak "Online 'Predators' and Their Victims" American Psychologist, the journal of the American Psychological Association
3.4X Posting personal information does not by itself increase risk. --Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 2/07 Question Has the growth in young peoples use of the Internet correlated with a rise in sexual abuse against children?
Answer: No Rate per 10,000 Children (<18) 25 51% Decline 20 (during the period of the Webs existence)
15 10 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998
2000 2002 Confirmed cases of child sexual abuse Source: NCANDS / Finkelhor & Jones, 2006 2004 Putting it into perspective
Pennsylvania Internet crimes for 4 year period vs. child sexual assaults in 1 year Nationally 30-40% of victims are abused by a family member Another 50% are abused by someone outside of the family whom they know and trust.
183 144 8 5 9,344 Source: Nancy Willard, Center for Safe & Responsible Internet Use, Jan. 2009. Based on FY 06/07 reports from rape crisis centers in PA & data from PAs AG Ofc.
Only 10% are abused by strangers. Darkness to Light Foundation Psychological safety: Freedom from Inappropriate content Exposure to Porn 42% of youth Internet users had been exposed to online pornography in the past year.
Of those, 66% reported only unwanted exposure. Wanted exposure rates were higher for teens, boys, and youth who used file-sharing programs to download images, talked online to unknown persons about sex, used the Internet at friends homes, or scored in the borderline or clinically significant range on the Child Behavior Checklist subscale for rule-breaking. Depression also could be a factor for some youth. Youth who used filtering and blocking software had lower odds of wanted exposure. Content concerns
Sexual content Hate Violence Illegal activity Harmful/self destructive activities Substance abuse (including alcohol & tobacco
Tools Filter incoming Block outgoing Monitoring & Reporting to parents Control time online
Total amount of time/access times Integrated into security products & free from some ISPs Two excellent free choices * Monitor activities * Set age appropriate rules Helps you talk to your kids about safe online behavior
Child friendly browsers Set limits and know what your kids are doing. Consider Monitoring vs. filtering or both Disclosed or stealth mode Parental remote access for monitoring & changing permissions What to do when you find something How to talk to kids about inappropriate
behavior/content Fences are not sufficient To be safe around all water, we teach kids to swim Ultimately, the best filter runs between the childs ears, not on a device Protection that lasts a lifetime
Training wheels for young kids Youll look up and down streets. Lookem over with care. About some you will say, I dont choose to go there. With your head full of brains and your shoes full of feet, youre too smart to go down a notso-good street. From: Oh! The Places Youll Go! By Dr. Seuss
Its all about family values Decisions about acceptable media content are extraordinarily personal; no two people or families will have the same set of values, especially in a nation as diverse as ours. Adam Thierer Parental Controls & Online Child Protection Psychological safety (part 2): Freedom from cruelty
Cyberbullying & harassment Risk that affects the most children 2 separate natl studies: About 33% of US teens have been harassed or bullied Harassment more common (75% of teens surveyed by UCLA study) 40% of online bullying is retaliation for in-school (offline) bullying/harassment (Agatston, et al) Only 10% report to adults Developmental more than technological problem Sources: Patchin and Hinduja, 2006; Pew/Internet, 2007; Journal
of School Health, 9/08; UNHs CACRC, 2007 What is Cyberbullying? Emerging definition: 1) willful repeated aggression; 2) associated with real life; 3) power imbalance; and of course 4) via electronic devices Bully/victim overlap - 27% of teen girls cyberbully back Online/offline: 40% of online bullying starts offline How anonymous? 36% know bully at school; 28% know bully online; 20% dont know bully
Sources: UNH CACRC, 07; Agatston, Kowalski, Limber, 09; Burgess-Proctor, Hinduja, Patchin, 09 Common types of cyberbulling
Messages meant to cause distress Negative or false information Being bad while impersonating Sharing secret information Removing or isolating people Threatening a target Video taping slapping someone Source: Robin M. Kowalski, PhD Recognizing and Treating Victim and Aggressor- Psychiatric Times, Oct 2008 Mean Girls
Boys more likely to engage in physical bullying BUT Girls cyberbully more than boys (13% vs 9%) Girls also targeted more than boys (25% vs 11%) Girls weapons: insults, ostracism, rumors, shared secrets Source: Robin Kowalski, PhD, in Psychiatric Times Picture from movie Mean Girls What to tell kids facing cyberbullying Dont react (what the bully
usually wants) Dont retaliate Block the bully Save the evidence Talk to a trusted adult Dont be a not so innocent bystander When I was being bullied on the bus, many times I asked for help from bystanders who were quietly watching me being bullied. They all
said I dont want to get involved. No one was asking them to get involved; I was only asking them to say stop. Brigette Berman, teenage author of Dorie Witts Guide to Surviving Bullying (page 66) Cyberbullying & sexting: When schools can intervene Need to find a nexus between speech and school:
No: 1969 Tinker case said that schools cant punish nondisruptive speech Yes: 1983 Fraser case said schools can punish lewd & disruptive speech In Latour v. Riverside Beaver School District, judge said to determine whether speaker means to communicate intent to do serious bodily harm AB v. Indiana: Court in 2007 ruled in favor of student who created a MySpace page critical of school policy - deemed protected political speech Reputational & legal safety Freedom from social, legal &
academic consequences Sexting Nude or sexually explicit photo-sharing or text messages Usually via cellphones, but possible via other devices and Web Illegal when involving minors A few prosecutors have charged teens with production, possession, distribution of child porn
Non-legal consequences Emotional or reputational damage School discipline Invisible viewership can be forwarded to anyone Potentially searchable on the Web, possibly forever How common is sexting? One study found that 1 in 5 kids had sent a sext But a later study found that 9% had sent a sext
Sent a sext 9% Received a Forwarded a sext sext 3% 17% Source: Cox Communications Teen Online & Wireless Safety Survey, 2009 People sent sext messages to
Boyfriend or girlfriend Someone had a crush on
Ex boyfriend/girlfriend Best Friend 14% Friends other than best Someone I dont know Classmates 4% Someone else 14% Decline to answer 3% 20% 21% 19%
18% 11% Source: Cox Communications Teen Online & Wireless Safety Survey, 2009 Did bad things happen after sexting? The photo was forwarded to an authority figure and I got in trouble 2% The photo was posted online where many people could see it
1% The person I sent the photo to threatened to send it to someone else 4% I accidentally sent the photo to the wrong person 2% The persons I sent the photo to made fun of me
2% The photo was forwarded to someone I didn't want to see it 2% Source: Cox Communications Teen Online & Wireless Safety Survey, 2009. Based on kids who sent texts (n=54) Why do kids sext? Teen romance expression of shared
intimacy with partner Flirting Showing off (party behavior) Impulsive risk-taking Peer pressure Revenge Bullying or intimidation Blackmail What should a parent do?
Have a family discussion, explain consequences If happens... Stay calm Make sure they stop immediately If image received, tell them not to forward it Talk with other parents & teens involved Think carefully before involving police (could implicate your own child) More advice at ConnectSafely.org/sexting When law enforcement
needs to be involved If intimidation, blackmail or extortion is involved If someone is distributing images If groomed or pressured by an adult Image: Norman Rockwell The Runaway 1958 Saturday Evening Post cover Youth behavior in context of sexually charged culture
Young people see whats around them Young people are growing up in what sexual abuse prevention specialist Cordelia Anderson has referred to as a sexually toxic culture. Reinforced by media, fashion industry, TV, movies, gaming, everywhere Device security Freedom from theft of identity & property Protect your devices &
yourself Can be a lesson in critical thinking. Teach kids about social engineering Teach kids to avoid dangerous places and activities Teach kids to use security tools & keep them up to date Wider Expertise Needed Police are great, but we also need Psychologists Physicians
Counselors Social Workers Youth workers Clergy Tech educators Kids! and others involved in the lives of young people The learning gap As social media are blocked by schools because seen as unsafe, a great deal of informal learning is barred from school, resulting in...
Growing gap between formal and informal learning Loss of school relevancy for youth Missed opportunity for both school and students Source: Digital Youth Project, November 2008 Why Web 2.0 is critical to the future of education As Web 2.0 is then brought into the classroom, the very nature
of student work changes. When a student's work is seen, and commented on, and collaboratively enhanced by a larger participative audience, those students are drawn into extended educational "conversations." In this way the relationship of the student to ideas and content are no longer constrained to the narrow avenue of interaction with their teachers, but they are suddenly interacting with their peers and others in the discovery, exploration, and clarification of knowledge. Why Web 2.0 is Critical to the Future of Education web20ineducation.wikispaces.com/
Web 2.0 Educational
Shifts From consuming to producing From authority to transparency From the expert to the facilitator From the lecture to the hallway From access to information to access to people From learning about to learning to be From passive to passionate learning From presentation to participation From publication to conversation From formal schooling to lifelong learning From supply-push to demand-pull
Source: Steve Hargadon (Why Web 2.0 is Critical to the Future of Education) What we now know From youth-risk research: Harassment & cyberbullying = most common risk Not all youth are equally at risk A childs psychosocial makeup & environment are better predictors of online risk than the technology he or she uses No single technological development can solve
youth online risk The Net effect How the Internet changes the equation... Disinhibition: Lack of visual cues reduces empathy Persistence & searchability: Net as permanent searchable archive Replicability: ability to copy and paste from anywhere, to anywhere Scalability: high potential visibility Invisible audiences: you never know whos watching Blurring of public and private: boundaries not clear
Source: danah boyd: Taken out of Context, 2008 New media literacy + Digital citizenship = Net safety 3.0 (for the vast majority of young people) One size does not fit all Messages should be tailored to risk
level Most kids need primary education which includes media literacy, digital citizenship and critical thinking Higher risk kids need more focused secondary prevention taught by experts Highest risk kids need tertiary intervention from youth workers, mental health professionals Next steps Engage industry and moderation companies in
discussion about citizenship & community building Encourage Net-safety advocates to incorporate OS3 into their messages Encourage educators to teach new media literacy & citizenship with or without social-media tools Train the risk-prevention community in social media Promote policy discussion about risk-prevention model Source: Digital Youth Project, November 2008
"We need to prepare kids for their future, not our past. Dr. Richard Moniuskzko, Assistant Superintendant, Fairfax County Schools, Va. Source: Digital Youth Project, November 2008 Thank you! Larry Magid
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